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25 terms

Eukaryote and Prokaryote Cell Structure

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granules
food storage in prokaryotes
gas vesicles
provide regulation for buoyancy in prokaryotes
flagella
long protein structure responsible for motility
pili
allow attachment of cells to surfaces. sex pili are involved in DNA transfer
prions
protein only, no nucleic acid. responsible for at least 7 neurodegenerative diseases
viroids
consist of a single RNA without a protective coat. it's an agent, and much smaller than a virus
virus
agent, piece of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. "obligate intracellular parasites" (must hijack a living cell) need electromicroscope to see
capsule
prokaryotes: adherence and protection. it's a distinct coat of sugars/protein
slime layer
prokaryotes: irregular- enambles bacteria to adhere to specific surfaces. similar to the capsule
plasmid
prokaryotes: carries non essential genetics
cytoskeleton
interior protein framework involved in cell division and controlling cell shape
ribosome
protein synthesis
endospore
a type of cell resistant to heat and other damaging conditions
chloroplast
eukaryotes: site of photosynthesis
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
eukaryotes: lipid synthesis/degradation.. storage
rough endoplasmic reticulum
eukaryotes: processes and transports proteins made at attached ribosomes.
golgi apparatus
eukaryotes: site where protein from endoplasmic reticulum are modified before they are transported in vesicles
lysosome
eukaryotes: (vesicles) digest macromolecules
mitochondria
eukaryotes: make ATP/ energy generators
peroxisome
eukaryotes: oxidation of lipids and toxic chemicals
chromosomes in prokaryotes
located in nucleoid which is not membrane-bound
cell boundary
phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. its a cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotes and a plasma membrane in eukaryotes. involved in transport and structure
biofilm
A surface-coating colony of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic cooperation. (some capsules and slime layers enable bacteria to grow an cling to surfaces)
cell wall
nonexistent in prokaryotes and animal cells. cell walls provide rigidity in plant cells
vacuole
water storage in plant cells