Psych 357 EXAM 2 Cortez CSUSB
Terms in this set (61)
= confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed
· Know the primary ways Structuralism differs from Wundtian psychology
Titchener focused on the elements themselves.
He analyzed the consciousness into its component parts and determined the structure.
Wundtian psych looked at it as a whole.
· Know Titchener's three problems for psychology
Reduce conscious processes to their simplest content
Determine laws by which these elements were associated
Connect the elements with their physiological conditions
What are Titchener's three elementary states of consciousness?
Sensations:basic elements of perception and occur in the sounds, sights, smells, and other experiences evoked by physical objects in our environment
Images: elements of ideas and they are found in the process that reflects experiences
Affective states:the elements of emotion are found in experiences such as love, hate, and sadness
Know the 4 characteristics of the elements of consciousness and what they represent
Quality is the characteristic- such as "cold" or "red"- that clearly distinguishes each element from every other element
Intensity refers to a sensation's strength, weakness, loudness, or brightness
Duration is the course of a sensation over time
Clearness refers to the role of attention in conscious experience; experience that is the focus of our attention is clearer than experience toward which our attention is not directed
What were the main criticisms of Structuralism?
Structuralism was accused of artificiality; attempting to analyze conscious process into elements.
The whole experience cannot be captured by a combination of elements.
Limited concept of the field: Titchener regarded animal and child psychology as not psychology at all
What were some Contributions of Structuralism
Research Methods: Based on observation, experimentation, and measurement.
Highest traditions of science.
More scientific approach to the method of introspection.
The catalyst for other schools of thought: Served as a point of criticism.
Scientific advances need something to oppose
Contrast and compare Titchener's and Wundt's approaches to psychology
Wundt: believed the mind had the power to organize mental elements voluntarily
Titchener: believed elements were mechanically linked through association and that psychology's fundamental task was to discover the nature of elementary conscious experiences.
According to Titchener, what is the proper subject matter for psychology? How does it differ from the subject matter of other sciences?
The proper subject matter for psychology is the conscious experience
Other sciences are independent of the experiencing person
a system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism's adaptation to its environment
Galton's first important book for psychology
Introspection by analogy:
a technique for studying animal behavior by assuming that the same mental processes that occur in the observer's mind also occurs in the animal's mind
an argument from Galton's book Hereditary Genius that stated individual greatness or genius occurs within families and gets passed down from generation. Shows that a genius is inherited and a specific form of genius
Ex: a great scientist was born into a family that had already attained eminence in science
a concept created by George John Romanes that explains the order of animals based on their mental functioning
the study of or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population, especially by discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics)
the study of animals in order to find out about humans
Galton used survey methods to determine that mental imagery also fits a normal curve
Law of parsimony:
the notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower mental processes
the use of observational reports about animal behavior
Know the story of Jenny and what Darwin said about her
Jenny was a 2 yr old orangutan who lived in the London Zoo. Jenny was like a child she: wore a girl's dress, used a spoon to eat from a plate, drank from a cup, understood her keeper's directions, recognized what she wasn't allowed to do, knew right from wrong, and could anticipate a whipping Jenny captured Charles Darwin's attention and he wrote her intelligence in comparison to man. He believed that man should be humble to consider himself created from animals
Know how Darwin changed Psychology:
no longer concerned with the structure of consciousness but its function, a new focus on animal psychology, acceptance of methodology and data from many fields, a new focus on the description and measurement of individual differences.
What were some of the Unceasing intellectual and scientific changes happening when Darwin's theory came out.
Migration Mechanistic spirit
What were some fundamental points of Darwin's theory of evolution (know how to describe each)
natural selection of traits best suited for the environment
survival of the fittest: elimination of those not fit for the environment
variation is a law of heredity.
What was Galton's primary contribution to psychology? What types of statistical methods did he use?
Mental inheritance and individual differences in human capacities
Galton used complex statistical analyses: applied the normal curve to mental characteristics, he proposed that the mean and standard deviation were the most useful for describing data, and he used correlation as a tool and graphed the correlation coefficient
How did increasing travel and exploration, and the public fascination with fossils, influence attitudes toward the idea of evolution? (see book)
The increase in traveling allowed researchers to collect information from all over the world to compare. By collecting fossils Darwin was able to come up with the idea of natural selection from traveling through the Galapagos islands. They started asking questions after finding fossils because of Noah's ark and not seeing the animals on the fossils. This brought question to faith. People also just started traveling in those days, most people were use to being born in one place and dying in that place. After traveling they learned about all the animals they never seen before, and brought new ideas and findings all around the world.
In what ways did Darwin's ideas influence psychology?
Focus on animal psychology
Emphasis on the functions rather than the structure of consciousness
Acceptance of methodology and data from many fields
Focus on the description and measurement of individual differences
How did Galton test for intelligence? (notes and book)
Galton used intelligence tests to measure an individual's intelligence by doing so:
1. Galton created a whistle to measure sensory capacities = the higher the intelligence, the higher the level of sensory functioning
2. Galton also used a photometer to measure the precision with which a subject could match two spots of color, a calibrated pendulum to measure the speed of reaction to lights and sounds, and a series of weights to be arranged in order of heaviness to measure kinesthetic or muscle sensitivity
3. Galton used a laboratory setting and used instruments for anthropometric and psychometric measurements on a long table. Attendants were asked for their height, weight, breathing power, strength of pull and squeeze, quickness of blow, vision, and color sense. The purpose was to attempt to measure the range of human capacities the British population.
Herbert Spencer's idea that knowledge and experience can be explained in terms of evolutionary principles (the mind has evolved into what it is today because of past experiences; we have adapted our environments mentally)
applying psychology to educational and philosophical problems
doctrine that the validity of idea is measured by their practical consequences (James believed psychology is pragmatic)
children in their personal development repeat the life history of the human race, evolving from infancy to childhood to rational human being
Woodworth's system which was concerned with the influence of causal factors and motivations on feelings and behavior (viewpoint was constructed not out of protest but by extending, elaborating, and synthesizing what he considered to be appropriate features of other approaches)
What is Social Darwinism? What did it have to do with the "utopian view" and free-market economics?
-Premise: the development of all aspects of the universe is evolutionary, including human character and social institutions
-Proposal: allow "survival of the fittest" to operate freely and let the characteristics, institutions, and people who are not fit to survive die out
The state should not interfere
What were the symptoms and typical "victims" of the horrible disease known as Neurasthenia/Americanitis?
-Thought to be American-idus. Included hypochondria, nervous systems, and nervous breakdown.
-The cure for America was in fact Europe. Through this experience of American
-idus he changed to believe in free will. Decided to use the power of the mind to free his conscious experience.
Know the two-major reason James is important to Psychology. What did James say about the irrational nature of humanity?
1. He stressed that psychology specifically should be focused on function, not structure
-The biggest shift in psychology to date is from academic to applied
2. He not only acknowledged but emphasized that the fact that humans are basically irrational creatures ruled by emotion rather than logic
-Our intellect can be affected by the condition of our body
-Our beliefs are often based on emotional factors rather than facts
Reason is influenced by our wants and needs
How did James's stream of consciousness concept oppose Wundt and Titchener's views of psychology?
Argued that consciousness is a continuous flow
Stream of consciousness: idea that consciousness is a continually flowing process and any attempt to reduce it to elements will distort it
What were Hall's "firsts"?
- First American doctoral degree in psychology -first American student in the first year of the first psychology lab
-Began what is often considered to be the first psychology laboratory in the United States -Began the first psychology journal
- Was the first president of Clark University
-One of the first applied psychologists
What were the three major themes of Functionalism outlined by James R. Angell?
-The psychology of mental operations (not elements)
-The psychology of the fundamental utilities of consciousness
-The psychology of psychophysical relations (mind-body relations)
What are some criticisms of Functionalism
Came mostly from structuralism:
Any approach to psychology that deviated from the introspective analysis of the mind into elements could not truly be called psychology
Criticisms of the functional psychologists' interest in practical concerns
Ongoing dispute between seeing psychology as a pure or as an applied science
What are some contributions of Functionalism
Consequences of the shift in emphasis from structure to function:
Research on animal behavior
Incorporated studies of infants, children, and people with mental disabilities
Supplemented the introspective method with data obtained from other methods (ex: mental tests, questionnaires, and objective descriptions of behavior)
According to James, what are the components of a person's sense of self? What role does clothing seem to play in our sense of self, in James's view?
The three part self:
-Material: everything uniquely our own (ie. clothes)
-Social: recognition we get from others -Spiritual: our inner and subjective beings.
Clothing can be an example for all three.
Describe the variability hypothesis and its influence on the idea of male superiority. How did research by Woolley and Hollingworth refute these ideas?
-Variability hypothesis- men show a wider range and variation of physical and mental development than women; abilities of women are seen as more average
- Helen wrote a doctoral dissertation was the first experimental test of the Darwinian notion that women were biologically inferior to men. Results showed no sex differences in emotional functioning and only small, insignificant differences in intellectual abilities.
hollingworth refuted the variability hypothesis and other notions of female inferiority. She found that the menstrual cycle was not related to performance deficits in perceptual and motor skills or in intellectual abilities.
Human suggestibility/Mental age
Age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks
Binet coined the phrase and made several tests to measure
How did Cattell's work on statistics come to characterize the new American psychology? One of the first American psychologist to stress qualification, ranking, and ratings.
Cattel was one to put emphasis on the stats end of psych like looking at standard deviation, used as a tool to back up what they theorized
How did Cattell influence the new psychology? What areas did he work in? What was his relationship with the university administration? What did he have to do with the development of consulting firms?
Believed that in universities the faculty should have more control than the administrators since the faculty knew more of what was going and what works best
How were the Binet tests different from previous mental tests? What did they each focus on?
Tests focused on memory, attention, and comprehension
Who is Horace Mann Bond? Why is he so important? What did he do?
An African American scholar and president of Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. Bond published books and articles that argued that any recorded differences in the IQ scores between blacks and whites were attributable to environmental rather than inherited factors. He proved that blacks from northern states scored higher on intelligence tests than whites from the southern states, which showed that blacks were not genetically inferior.
In what ways did Witmer's clinical psychology influence the way we treat children with behavioural, cognitive, and psychological disorders today?
Wilmer's clinical psychology has shown that children's environmental factors are important for their behavior, cognitive development, and can contribute to any disorders. This helped raise awareness to parents and to get them more involved with their children.
How did WWII change clinical psychology?
After the war, the need for clinical psychologists increased dramatically, because the men who served in the war were dealing with severe psychiatric problems and needed help to return to a civilian life.
What series of events led to Munsterberg being called "the most hated man in America"?
1. He was German and was accused of being a German spy
2. He gave almost 100 mental tests to a confessed killer of 18 people who had accused a labor union leader for paying for the murders. He told the jury that the murderer's confession of the labor leader was true before the jury even reached its verdict for the labor leader's trial.
3. He became involved with Prohibition arguing that alcohol was beneficial
4. His views on women were controversial. He even stated that women should not teach in public schools because they were poor role models for boys and that women should not be allowed to serve on jury duty because they were incapable of making rational decisions.
Know how Scott contributed to the field of IO psychology
1. Scott was the first person to apply psychology to personnel selection, management, and advertising
2. Advertising and human suggestibility: Scott argued that because consumer often do not act rationally, they can be easily influenced rating scales and group tests to measure the characteristics of people who were already successful in those occupations
3. Employee selection: Scott devised
How did the world wars impact IO psychology?
WWI brought about a monumental increase in the scope, popularity, and growth of IO psychology. WWI evaluated the job qualifications of 3 millions soldiers and it demonstrated psychology's worth. WWII brought even more psychologists into war work for testing, screening, and classifying recruits. The wars also contributed to the rise of engineering psychology.
What contributions to IO psychology did women like Lillian Moller Gilbreth make?
Gilbreth promoted time and motion analysis as a technique to improve efficiency in job performance. She also recognized the value of filming people on the job as a way of analyzing their movements. Gilbreth's ideas applied to organization of the home and also contributed to the refrigerator shelves inside the doors.
What was the significance for psychology of the Coca-Cola trial and Hollingworth's research?
The trial showed the public that psychology can be used for more practical things outside a lab
How did economic forces influence the development of applied psychology?
Academic jobs were filing up quickly
Hollingworth shows that psychology can be used for advertising and has mass appeal
How was industrial-organizational psychology affected by the Hawthorne studies?
An investigation of the effects of the physical work environment
Social/psychological workplace were much more important than the physical conditions
Ex: workers were motivated to know that management cared about them and their boss was interested in them as individuals
2. Led to exploration of leadership, work groups, work climate, communication, etc.
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