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AnP Lymphatic/Endocrine Written Test
Terms in this set (36)
1. The importance of the lymphatic system is to ___________ a balance of fluid in the ______________ environment.
2. Lymphatics resemble veins in structure with these exceptions:
a. Lymphatics have _______ walls.
b. Lymphatics contain ______ valves.
c. Lymphatics contain ________ located at certain intervals along their course.
3. Lymphatics play a critical role in numerous interrelated __________ mechanisms.
__________are oval-shaped or bean-shaped structures.
5. Locations of lymph nodes:
a. ____________ - just in front of the ear.
b. ____________ - the floor of the mouth.
c. ____________ - in the neck along the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
d. ___________ - just above elbow.
e. ___________ - clustered deep within underarm and upper chest region
f. ____________ - in the pelvis and groin.
Preauricular lymph nodes
Submental group and submandibular group
Superficial cervical lymph nodes
Superficial cubital lymph nodes (supratrochlear lymph nodes)
Axillary lymph nodes
Iliac lymph nodes and inguinal lymph nodes
6. Lymph nodes perform at least 2 functions:
defense and hematopoiesis
7. Masses of lymphoid tissue called ________, are located in a protective ring.
8. The _________ organ is an unpaired organ consisting of 2 pyramidal lobes.
9. What are 2 important functions of the thymus?
First, the thymus serves as the final site of __________ ________ before birth.
Also, soon after birth, the thymus begins secreting a group of hormones called thymosin and other regulators that allow lymphocytes to develop into ____________.
mature T cells
10. What are 2 functions of the spleen?
Two of the many functions of the spleen include acting as a blood reservoir for the body,
and performing destruction and break down of old red blood cells and platelets.
11. _______________ is prolonged infestation of the lymphatic system by worms that produces so much swelling that the affected limbs resemble that of an elephant.
12. What is the difference between Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's disease.
Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's disease are similar:
-both fall under the category of lymphomas.
-both characterized by a cancerous tumor of the cells of the lymphoid tissue.
-both etiology is uncertain
-both usually treated with chemotherapy and radiation.
The difference between the two is that Hodgkin lymphoma is a malignancy that started as a pathogen-induced tumor of T cells. Other inducing factors may include chemical exposure or environmental exposure. The symptoms of this disease begin with painless, nontender, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck or axilla, and over time more lymph nodes in other body regions may be affected.
On the contrary, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a malignancy of lymphoid tissue other than Hodgkin lymphoma. It is assumed to be caused by a virus, especially in individuals with immunodeficiencies like AIDS. This condition is similar to Hodgkin's lymphoma, however the lymph nodes involved are more general and the central nervous system is usually affected.
1. In the Endocrine system, secreting cells send _________by way of the bloodstream to effect specific __________ throughout the body.
2. Excessively high blood concentration of a hormone or any condition that mimics high hormone levels is called ___________.
3. ______________ is not a disease itself but a condition that characterizes several different diseases such as Grave's Disease.
4. The _______ is a small but mighty structure. In past centuries it was referred to as the _______ gland. The _______ looks like one gland but it actually consist of 2 glands, the __________ pituitary and the ___________ pituitary.
AKA adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis.
5. Cells of the Anterior Pituitary are classified by 5 secretion types.
1.Somatotrophs 2. Corticotrophs 3. Thyrotrophs 4. Lactotrophs 5. Gonadotrophs
6. If produced in too large a quantity, ______ can cause gigantism in kids and acromegaly in adults. The cells that produce this hormone are called __________________________.
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
7. _______ is also called the lactogenic hormone. During pregnancy a high level of PRL promotes the development of the breasts in anticipation of milk secretion.
8. _________ promotes and maintains the growth and development of its target gland the Thyroid.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
9. ___________ stimulates the first process in the gonads. This varies from male to female.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
10. ___________ stimulates the last process in the gonads. This process varies from male to female.
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
11. ________ promotes and maintains normal growth and development of the cortex of the adrenal gland.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
12. The Posterior lobe of the Pituitary serves as a storage and release site for two hormones ________ and _____. ADH prevents the formation of a large volume of _________.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
13. _________________ stimulates rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus, and it causes milk ejection from the breasts of lactating women.
14. The Pineal gland resembles a _____ or a large kernel of corn.
15. Thyroid hormone is actually 2 hormones called _________ and __________. (I want the full names)
16. Which one of the hormones in question 15 is active ________ and which one is a backup _________?
17. The thyroid also produces a hormone called _________ which ___________ calcium levels in the blood.
18. Embedded in the posterior thyroid are 4-5 tiny glands called ________.
They secrete a hormone called __________.
19. The hormone in question 18 __________ calcium levels in the blood.
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
20. On top of the kidneys sit 2 glands called the ____________, the outer portion of the glands is called the ____________ and the inner is called the _______________.
21. List the 3 hormones that are produced in the outer portion of the gland listed in question #20. __________, ___________, ___________.
androgens (male sex hormones)
22. The gland: _______ ___________ produces hormones that enhance and prolong the effects of the sympathetic division of the ANS by producing adrenaline.
23. The islets of the Pancreas secrete 2 very important hormones ______ and ___________.
gulcagon (alpha cells)
insulin (beta cells)
24. The _________ is a gland in the mediastinum, just beneath the sternum. It is large in children until puberty, when it begins to atrophy. By the time a person reaches old age the gland is a vestige of tissue.
25. Which two hormones have an antagonistic effect and control blood sugar levels? _______________________ and ________________________.
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