31 terms

Marine bio

10-1 10-2 vocab
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vertebrates
Chordates with a backbone.
caudal fin
The posterior, or tail, fin of fishes.
cycloid
Overlapping smooth scales of bony fishes.
swim bladder
The gas-filled sac in the body cavity of bony fishes that is involved in the adjustment of buoyancy.
vertebra
(pl. vertebrae) Each of the bones that make up the backbone.
dorsal
The upper or back surface of an animal with bilateral symmetry.
ctenoid
Overlapping spined scales of bony fishes.
cartilage
A rigid material that is still lighter and more flexible than bone that makes up the skeletons of sharks, rays, and skates.
pectoral fin
Each of the pair of fins just behind the head of fishes.
operculum
(1) The tough lid that closes the shell opening of many gastropods when the body is withdrawn. (2) The flap of bony plates that covers the gills of bony fishes.
placoid scales
Small rough scales that make up the skin of cartilaginous fishes.
demersal fish
A bottom-dwelling fish.
fin ray
Each of the bony spines in the fins of bony fishes.
ichthyology
The scientific study of fishes.
gas exchange
The movement of oxygen and other gases between the atmosphere and the ocean, or between the water or atmosphere and living organisms, in which case it is often called respiratory exchange.
chloride cells
Cells in the gills of fishes that are involved in the excretion of excess salts.
otoliths
Calcareous ear stones that fishes use to detect change in body position.
simultaneous hermaphroditism
Animals that can produce eggs and sperm at the same time.
pyloric caecum
Each of the slender tubes found in the intestines of many bony fishes.
spiracle
One of two openings behind the eyes of cartilaginous fishes.
urea
A toxic waste product of some vertebrates.
lateral line
A system of canals and sensory cells on the sides of fishes that helps them detect vibrations in the water.
sequential hermaphroditism
An animal that changes from male to female (or female to male) over the course of its life.
spiral valve
A spiral portion in the intestine of cartilaginous fishes.
lamella
Each of the many thin plates that make up the gill filaments of fish gills.
olfactory sacs
Structures on both sides of the head of fishes that are sensitive to chemical stimuli.
neuromasts
Sensory cells in bony fishes that are sensitive to vibrations.
cloaca
The common opening for the intestine and the excretory and reproductive systems of cartilaginous fishes and other animals.
countercurrent system of flow
An adaptation of bony fishes where the blood in the gills flows in the opposite direction of the water passing over them, increasing the efficiency of gas exchange.
barbels
Whisker-like sensory organs near the mouth of some bottom feeding fishes.
ampulla of Lorenzini
One of several sensory structures in the head of sharks that detect weak electric fields.