Children With Disability - Theorists

Jean Piaget keyword
Four developmental stages of Piaget
1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete
4. Formal
1.Sensorimotor stage
(birth - 2 years old). A child, through physical interaction with the surrounding environment, builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works. During this stage, a child does not yet understand that an object continues to exist once it is out of sight (object permanence).
2.Preoperational stage (age 2-7).
the child needs concrete situations in which to learn as the child cannot think abstractly.
3.Concrete operations (age 7-11).
The child has built a means of understanding the world based on the previous stages. The child is able to conceptualize and can create logical structures to explain physical experiences. The beginning of abstract problem solving is present and is illustrated by the ability to master arithmetic equations without objects.
4. Formal operations
(beginning between 11-15). Beginning between the ages of 11 - 15, the child's cognitive structures become like those of an adult. Conceptual reasoning is possible.
Piaget offers a principle of maintaining __________ as the child moves through these stages.

. If the child has a new experience, the child loses equilibrium, and thus, the equilibrium must be reestablished. Once reestablished, the child may assimilate this new experience into the familiar structures. Upon revisiting this experience in the future, the child should be able to maintain equilibrium through it, and therefore, establish more adequate cognitive structures.
mental maps
how we build on our experiences and use them for future experiences

ex: first day of kindergarden you were scared and didnt know what to expect but on your first day of 1st grade you can use your mental map of kindergarden and know what to expect..when i go to school i will meet my teacher and put my lunch in the cubbie and sit at my seat and raise my hand...
Margaret Mahler's keyword
Much of the focus of Mahler's steps is in relation to the ___ with ___ and ____ as the desired outcome
parent; separation and individuation

Mahler offers understanding of the child as the child forms a sense of self as separate from the primary parent.
Mahlers 3 steps:
1. normal autistic phase
2. normal symbiotic phase
3. separation and individuation proper
3a. differentiation
3b. practicing
3c. rapprochement
1. normal autistic phase
(birth to four weeks).
child is in a half-asleep, half-awake state.
Achieving homeostatic equilibrium with the child's environment is the major task of this phase.
2. Normal Symbiotic Phase
(3-4 weeks to 4-5 months). The child begins to have a dim awareness of the caregiver, but the child functions as if he/she and the caregiver are undifferentiated (fusion remains).
The onset of a social smile is characteristic between two and four months.
Separation and Individuation Proper: differentiation
(5-10 months). During this time, the child emerges from its autistic state. The senses have developed and reflect cognitive and neurological maturation. The child begins comparative screening (i.e. what is and what is not Mother*). Thus, at this time, the onset of stranger anxiety is noticed. This is most common around eight months and involves both curiosity and fear.
Separation and Individuation Proper: practicing
(10-16 months). The beginning of this stage is marked by upright locomotion.

The child has a new perspective and a feeling of elation.
The child will "practice" new skills. This may present as the ongoing dumping of toys, dropping a spoon to the floor, over and over, each time with the same level of interest.

Mother is used as a home base for launching to the new experiences. Separation from Mother may prove to be very anxiety producing as the child does not yet understand that Mother continues to exist once out of sight.
Separation and Individuation Proper: C. Rapprochement
(16 - 24 months). The child, now a toddler, is more aware of the physical separateness from Mother, which decreases the elation from the previous months. The child tries to bridge the gap between him/herself and Mother. This is seen as the child bringing toys or interesting objects to Mother. Temper tantrums emerge and often Mother is seen by the child as not helpful. The characteristic event is rapprochement which appears in the classic scenario as the child at the door, looking out toward new experiences, while at the same time, glancing back at Mother. The child wants to venture forward, but at the same time, not leave the security of Mother. Helpless frustration may appear. As the child learns to move forward in life, and Mother remains constant upon the return, the resolution of the crisis occurs with the improving of skills and the child feeling gratification from doing things independently.
D. Object Constancy
(24-36 months). During this stage, the child is beginning to understand that Mother (and other people and objects) are constant in the world, even when out of sight. Therefore, the child begins to handle separation from Mother more easily. Substitutes (i.e. nursery school teacher) are acceptable. The child knows Mother will return. There is a gradual internalization of the image of Mother as reliable and stable. Through increasing verbal skills and a better sense of time, the child can tolerate delay (i.e. wait for juice) and endure separation.
A professional who can patiently wait for the toddler presenting in the stage of ______ and provide encouragement through eye contact, facial gestures, and words will help the child venture forward into new experiences.
Erikson's keyword
how do erikson's stages work?
Erikson divided the life cycle into eight stages. Each stage has a main task and the positive outcome of the stage will result in a stronger foundation for the future stages of life. A negative outcome of the stage will result in the task remaining incomplete and resurfacing in a maladaptive way in the later years of life
what are erikson's views on parents?
Erikson views the stages as inherent to the biological life cycle, yet incorporates the importance of balanced parenting. Parents can offer encouragement and reassurance, as well as the opportunity to explore and make mistakes.
what are the 8 stages?
1. infancy: trust vs. mistrust
2. toddler: autonomy vs. doubt
3. early childhood: initiative vs. guilt
4. elementary and middle school years: competence vs. inferiority
5. adolescence: identity vs. role confusion
6. young adulthood: intimacy vs. isolation
7. middle adulthood: generatively vs. stagnation
8. late adulthood: integrity vs. despair
1. Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust
(age 0 - 1). During this stage, the task for the child is to learn to attach to the parents (trust). If an infant's needs of food, warmth and affection are met, the child will learn to trust. Balance is needed so that the child does not become over trusting.
2. Toddler: Autonomy vs. Doubt
The focus of this stage is autonomy. The child wants to do everything independently.

The parents can support the child to learn to do new things, while at the same time, help the child when needed.

The successful outcome of this stage will result in a child who is confident to cope with future situations and mistakes.

A child who is prevented from trying new things or harshly reprimanded for mistakes may evolve into an adult who is obsessive. The fear of making mistakes creates a drive for perfection.
3. Early Childhood: Initiative vs. Guilt
(age 2 - 6). During this stage, children will use their newfound power to engage in the world around them.
It is a time for social interaction and play.
Children need to learn to achieve a balance between their eagerness to participate in life and impulsivity.

If parents are encouraging, yet consistent in discipline, the child will achieve this balance.

The negative outcome of this is too much initiative which results in ruthlessness in adults.
4. Elementary and Middle School Years: Competence vs. Inferiority
(age 6 - 12). These are the school years when children spend most of their time learning how to make things, about how things work and about what they can do.

They begin the transition from the world of home and family to the world of school and peers.

Children who are supported during this stage will discover pleasure in learning, and therefore, will develop a sense of competence.

Some children have too many lessons and not enough time to be children.
Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion.
Adolescents are self involved and that is due to the fact that this is the time to ask one's self: who am I? Adolescents explore who they are in the world and need to learn about their identity.

An adolescent who moves successfully through this stage will have a sense of her/himself in the world.

Adolescents who are not successful may develop fanaticism, or denounce all aspects of the dominant culture.
6. Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation
(age 19 - 40). This is the stage when one learns to be intimate with another person.

The focus is love relationships and a truly successful adult is capable of intimacy and making a commitment with another adult.

The negative outcome of this stage is a person who is afraid of commitment and unable to move into deeper relationships.
7. Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation
During this stage, the focus is on others. This may include the task of raising children, teaching, or helping in one's community. The negative outcome of this stage is a person who remains self-centered.
Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair
(age 65 - death). It is during these years that the success of all the previous stages results in a person who can look back at his or her life and have a sense of acceptance about the path taken: the happiness, the sadness, the decisions, the richness.

There is also a sense of acceptance of death with a sense of integrity.

If a person has not be able to move through the previous stages, the individual may fear death and spend these last years in a state of despair.
why is erikson's theory important?
Teachers and clinicians who understand the child's task for the life stage will work more effectively with the child.