Which of the following examples presents the strongest evidence of principled political action—i.e., action that cannot be explained as purely or mostly about the politics of interest?
- Steve, an electrician, joins the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers—a union that advocates for the interests of electrical workers. Steve says that he joined the union because he stands for the right of workers of all trades (whether unionized or not) to earn a good living and have reasonable working hours, get weekends off, and get 4-6 weeks' vacation per year.
- Charlotte, a small business owner with a lot of minimum wage employees, opposes a proposal to raise the minimum wage by stating the following: "This has nothing to do with the interests of business owners and everything to do with the rights and interests of workers. They have a right to work at whatever wage they are willing to accept, and a lot of jobs will be lost if the minimum wage goes up."
- Mack, the president of a large state university, starts an advocacy organization called "Higher Education Administrators for Spending Sanity." Mack and his organization say that public university tuition should be slashed by 25% and that no university administrator should earn more than 115% of what the average professor at their university earns. If successful, Mack's salary would drop from over $1 million per year to around $90,000 per year. But Mack says this "would be worth it" in order to "make sure that unnecessary costs are eliminated, that tuition for students is brought to a sane level, and that administrator pay cannot increase without increasing compensation for the true creators of value at our universities—the professors."