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Bio-Chemistry Study Guide
Terms in this set (65)
_____________ is any material that has mass & takes up space. Mater is composed of _________.
Matter ; Atoms
A pure substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into other substances.
An element is matter in which all the atoms are the __________.
What is the difference between a bulk element and a trace element?
Bulk elements are needed in large amounts and trace elements are needed in much smaller amounts.
List 3 examples of bulk elements needed for life.
Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen. Hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur.
Smallest piece of an element that retains the characteristics of the element.
List the 3 parts of an atom.
Protons, neutrons, electrons.
Protons have _____ charge and a mass of _____.
Positive ; One
Neutrons have _____ charge and a mass of ______.
Neutral ; One
Electrons have _____ charge and their mass is negligible.
Where are protons and neutrons located in the model of an atom?
In the nucleus.
Where are electrons located in the model of an atom?
Moving around the nucleus in clouds, shells, levels.
Atoms have no charge or are _________. What does this mean about the number of protons and electrons?
Neutral. It means they are equal.
The atomic number is the number of _________ & is the top number on the periodic chart. It ___________ the element.
Protons ; Identifies
The atomic mass is the number of _____ & _____ is the bottom number periodic chart.
Protons & Neutrons.
How are elements listed on the periodic chart?
By their atomic number.
Determine the number of protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number and atomic mass of the element Be.
Electrons : 4
Atomic Number: 4
Mass Number: 9
If the atomic number of an element is 18 and the mass number is 40, what is the number of protons, electrons, & neutrons?
Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons are __________.
Ordinary hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are ______ of each other. What would vary between these elements: atomic number, mass number, or both?
Isotopes ; Mass number only.
Some isotopes are radioactive. What does that mean?
They are decaying and giving off energy
List 4 ways radioactive isotopes can be used.
Kill disease causing organisms, tracers in scans, radiometric dating, and cancer therapy.
Atoms that have a charge are called ________. What is lost or gained to create an ion?
Ions ; Electrons.
A negative ion has __________ an electron & is called a ________.
Gained ; Anions.
A positive ion has _________ an electron & is called a _________.
Lost ; Cations.
Electrons that occupy the outer energy level are called ________ electrons. These electrons determine an atom's ____________.
Valence ; Reactivity.
The first shell will hold _____ electrons and all other cells will hold _____ electrons.
2 ; 8
If the outer shell is full, the atom is NOT __________. If the outer shell is NOT full, the atom is ___________.
Bonding is created by giving, accepting, & sharing of __________.
_________ bonds are formed when atoms gain or lose _______.
Ionic ; electrons.
When an atom loses or gains an electron, it has a ________.
What created the bond between two atoms that have given/accepted electrons?
Strong, stable bonds formed when atoms are electrons are called _________ bonds.
How many electrons are in carbon's outer shell?
4 ; 4 more or 8. Carbon will form 4 bonds.
A single bond means the sharing of ____ electron, a double bond means the sharing of ____ electrons, & a triple bond means the sharing of _____ electrons.
1 ; 2 ; 3
A covalent bond in which there is an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms is called a _______ covalent bond.
The measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons is called its _________.
The unequal sharing of electrons creates partial _________.
List one example of a compound that is highly polar meaning it has partial charges.
Hydrogen bonds are _______ bonds.
Hydrogen bonds are formed between two _______.
The opposite ends of the molecule have a partial ________ because of unequal sharing.
The unique properties of water are created because water has _____ charges and easily forms hydrogen bonds.
_______ is the property where water molecules cling to each other. List 1 example.
Cohesion ; Water beads up on a car.
________ is the property where water molecules cling to other polar substances. List 1 example.
Adhesion ; Capillary action.
Define solute, solvent & solution.
Solute: A substance that is dissolved.
Solvent: A substance that dissolves other substances
Solution: The solute and solvent together.
Substances that are attracted to water & therefore are easily dissolved by water are ___________. These substances must have charge like water and therefore are also __________.
hydrophilic ; polar.
Substances that are NOT attracted to water & therefore are NOT easily dissolved by water are _________. These substances DO NOT have charges & therefore are called ________. List 2 examples.
Hydrophobic ; nonpolar.
Fat & Wax
Why is it difficult to clean a greasy pan with just water? What does detergent do when you add it to the pan?
The grease is non polar and repels the water which makes it difficult for the water to break up the grease and wash it away.
It breaks it up into very small pieces making it easier to wash away.
Water resists changes in ______________.
All of the unique properties of water are created because water forms ________ _______.
A substances that releases hydrogen ions in solution is called an _________.
Completely the following equation: HCle
H+ plus Cl
A substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxide ions is called a ________.
Complete the following equation: NaOHe
Na+ plus OH
Bases are commonly called __________.
The _______ scale is a logarithmic expression of hydrogen ion concentration. It was created to measure the strength of an acid or base.
Numbers below 7 indicate an __________. Numbers above 7 indicate a _______. Seven indicates _______.
Acid ; Base ; Neutral
What number represents the strongest acid? What number represents the strongest base?
0 ; 14
Each step in the pH scale represents a _____ change.
A substance with a pH of 4 is ______x stronger than a substance with a pH of 6.
List 3 common acids.
Vinegar, lemon juice, sodas.
List 3 common bases.
Soap, baking soda, ammonia.
List 1 example of a substance that is neutral.
A system that resists changes in pH and contains a weak base & a weak acid is called a _____.
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