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Chapter 9: Respiration and Fermentation
Terms in this set (123)
ATP is (unstable/stable) and (stored/not stored)
unstable, not stored
glucose is used to produce ATP through which 2 processes?
cellular respiration results in the ______ oxidation of glucose into what 2 things?
fermentation results in the _____ oxidation of glucose with small, reduced ______ produced as ______
partial, organic molecules, waste
what release more energy from glucose, cellular respiration or fermentation?
what is the first step of the complete oxidation of glucose via cellular respiration?
what is the second step of the complete oxidation of glucose via cellular respiration?
what is the third step of the complete oxidation of glucose via cellular respiration?
citric acid cycle
what is the fourth step of the complete oxidation of glucose via cellular respiration?
e- transport and oxidative phosphorylation
during glycolysis one 6 carbon molecule of glucose is broken into 2 molecules of ________
3 C pyruvate
during glycolysis, _______ is produced and NAD+ is reduced to form _____
during pyruvate processing each pyruvate is processed to release one molecule of ______ and the remaining two carbons are used to form the compound _______
CO2, acetyl CoA
the oxidation of pyruvate results in more _______ being reduced to what?
during the citric acid cycle each acetyl CoA molecule is oxidized to form two molecules of _______, more __________ and ______ are produced, and FAD is reduced to form _______
CO2, ATP/NADH, FADH2
during electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation electrons from ______ and _____ move through a protein series called ______ which is abbreviated as ______
NADH/FADH2, e- transport chain, ETC
during electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, the energy released from the redox reactions is used to create a _____ across a membrane that allows ______ to flow back across the membrane that os used to make _____
proton gradient, protons, ATP
oxidative phosphorylation is the production of ____ through using the ________ established by the redox reactions of an _______
ATP, proton gradient, ETC
cellular respiration is any set of reactions that use ________ harvested from _______ molecules to produce ATP via a(n) _______
e-, high energy, ETC
enzymes routinely breakdown fats to release ____ and form _____ from the fatty acids
glycerol, acetyl CoA
proteins can also be broken down by enzymes to produce _____ which is secreted as waste in the urine and carbon compounds which can be converted into _____ or _____
amino groups, pyruvate, acetyl CoA
when carbs, fats, and proteins are all available to generate ATP in which order are they used up?
carb, fat, protein
all molecules in glycolysis are phosphorylated except the starting and ending molecules which are what?
each step in glycolysis is catalyzed by a ________
glycolysis is a series of ____ reactions that all occur in the ______
glycolysis starts by ________ ATP, NOT producing it. This beginning phase is known as the _____ phase
in glycolysis the first high energy molecules are produced when?
substrate-level phosphorylation is the production of _______ by the transfer of a ______ group from an ________ substrate directly to it
ATP/GTP, P, intermediate
what is the net yield of the glycolysis of each molecule of glucose
2 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate
phosphofructokinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ______________ from fructose-6-phosphate
phosphofructokinase is inhibited by what?
high ATP levels
the pathway of glycolysis is first regulated at which reaction which is where what occurs?
in eukaryotes, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is transported from the cytosol to where?
pyruvate dehydrogenase is a large enzyme complex located in the _________ that is responsible for converting ______ to ____ during cellular respiration
mitochondrial matrix, pyruvate, acetyl CoA
as a pyruvate is processed one of its carbons is oxidized to become _____ and NAD+ is reduced to become ________. Its remaining 2 carbon acetyl units react with ______ to form _______
CO2, NADH, CoA, acetyl CoA
in cellular respiration CoA acts as an _______ by accepting and then later transferring an ______ group to another substrate
glycolysis and pyruvate processing are regulated by what?
which is the most oxidized of the eight carboxylic acids?
which is the most reduced of the eight carboxylic acids?
the citric acid cycle is a series of ____ chemical reactions that start with____ and end with _____
8, citrate, oxaloacetate
the citric acid cycle is formed when ________ reacts with _____ to from _____ as a part of the pathway that oxidizes glucose to _____
oxaloacetate, acetyl CoA, citrate, Co2
in eukryotes, most of the enzymes needed for the citric acid cycle are located where?
in prokaryotes, most of the enzymes needed for the citric acid cycle are located where?
the citric acid circle turns ______ for each molecule of glucose processed
citric acid cycle rates are high when ATP and NADH amounts are (low/high)
the citric acid cycle produces what three things for each acetyl it oxidizes
3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP
for each glucose molecule that is fully oxidized to from 6 CO2 molecules, the cell produces what 3 things?
10 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4 ATP
NADH is oxidized when it is combined with the ______ of what organelle?
inner membrane, mitochondria
the molecules responsible for the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 are designated the _______
e- transport chain
Most ETC molecules are _____ that contain distinctive ________ and ______ groups where redox occurs
proteins, cofactors, prosthetic
ubiquinone is also known as what?
coenzyme Q is a __________ molecule that shuttles _____ between membrane bound complexes in the mitochondrial ________
nonprotein, e-, ETC
redox potential is a measure of the ability of a molecule to ______ (also known as being _____) in a redox reaction
accept e-, reduced
how many complexes are in the ETC?
cytochrome c is a ____ protein in the inter membrane space of mitochondria that _______ between membrane bound complexes in the ETC
soluble, shuttles e-
what are the 2 electrons shuttles in the ETC?
Q, cytochrome c
once the electrons at the _____ of the ETC are accepted by oxygen to form _______, the oxidation of glucose is complete
energy released from redox reactions in the ETP is used to __________ across the inner membrane from the matrix to the inner membrane space
actively transport protons
much of the chemical energy that was originally present in glucose is now accounted for in the ___________________
proton electrochemical gradient
ATP synthase is a large membrane bound protein that uses _____ stored in a proton gradient to couple _______ and ________
PE, proton transport, atp synthesis
chemiosmosis is the diffusion of ______ ions down their ________ in order to generate _____
H+, EC gradient, ATP
ATP production relies solely on the existence of _______________
proton motive force
proton motive force is the combined effect of a _____ and a ________ across a membrane which can drive protons across it
proton gradient, EC gradient
the knob component of the ATP synthase structure is known as what?
the membrane bound, proton transporting base component of the ATP synthase structure is known as what?
the energy to produce ATP in oxidative phosphorylation comes from a _________________
established proton gradient
ATP synthase works by doing what?
ATP synthase can also ______ ATP by ___________
hydrolyze, reversing its spin
the oxidation of glucose yields how may ATP molecules?
respiration that relies on oxygen as an electron carrier is known as what?
respiration that relies on anything other than oxygen as an electron carrier is known as what?
is anaerobic or aerobic respiration more efficient?
aerobic respiration is more efficient because it has a large _______ Maning the ETC can generate a large proton motive force
fermentation is a metabolic pathway that regenerates oxidizing agents such as ______ by transferring electrons to a ______ in the absence of a __________
NAD+, e- acceptor, ETC
fermentation allows other pathways to continue doing what?
instead of using an ETC, electrons removed from NADH are transferred to _____ or a molecule _____ from it
in respiring cells, fermentation is an _______ to _____
emergency back up, produce ATP
lactic acid fermentation is a _____ pathway in which _____ produced by glycolysis is converted into ______ in order to oxidize NADH to NAD+
catabolic, pyruvate, lactic acid
alcohol fermentation is a _____ pathway in which _____ produced by glycolysis is converted into ______ in order to oxidize NADH to NAD+
catabolic, pyruvate, ethanol
fermentation is very _______ compared to cellular respiration
organisms that can switch between fermentation and aerobic cellular respiration are called what?
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
Where do all the carbons of glucose end up when glucose is completely oxidized?
Canine phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency afflicts Springer spaniels, affecting an estimated 10 percent of the breed. Given its critical role in glycolysis, one implication of the genetic defect resulting in PFK deficiency in dogs is ________.
intolerance for exercise
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by what?
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
ATP can function as a ________ for the citric acid cycle
In mitochondrial electron transport, the direct role of O2 is to functional what?
final e- acceptor of etc
How would anaerobic conditions (when no O2 is present) affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation?
both would stop
are MORE protons pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane when FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor?
glycolysis takes place where?
the citric acid cycle and pyruvate processing take place where?
oxidative phosphorylation takes place where?
inner mitochondrial membrane
True or false? If you used a radioactive label to trace the pathway of carbon through cell respiration, the label would begin in glucose and end in CO2.
If you used a radioactive label to trace the pathway of oxygen through cell respiration, the label would end where?
A newly developed insecticide compound steals high-energy electrons from FADH2 and NADH before they can bind to the electron transport chain. Why does this kill insects?
cant make proton gradient to drive atp production
In muscle cells, fermentation produces what?
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.
What compound couples glycolysis to acetyl CoA formation?
potential energy stored in food (from _______ in bonds) must be _______ to release energy
e- arrangement, broken down
what are the two main ways the potential energy in food is broken down to release energy?
in the reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy(ATP/heat), what is reduced and what is oxidized
c6h12o6 oxidized, o2 reduced
is the reaction C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy(ATP/heat) exergonic or endergonic?
energy is harvested in steps because if glucose was all oxidized at once what would be the problem?
too much energy lost
in respiration e- travel with what?
H atoms are not directly transferred to O2, what transfers them there? provide example
e- carriers, NAD+
pyruvate processing is a series of ___ reactions that forms _______, ______, and _______
3, CO2, NADH, acetyl CoA
during pyruvate processing coenzyme A (CoA) is added to form acetyl CoA which has what?
what two things are recycled in the citric acid cycle?
what steps of respiration generate reduced electron carriers?
glycolysis, pyruvate processing, citric acid cycle
how does oxidative phosphorylation generate ATP?
adds Pi to ADP
what are the two steps of oxidative phosphorylation?
electron carriers alternate between _______ and ______ states as they accept and donate electrons
what is the final electron acceptor in the ETC that picks up 2 H+ ions to form ________
during chemiosmosis the _____ flow of electrons is used to pump ____ across the membrane
H+ ions binding to ______ that cause a ______ change are what causes the ATP rotor to spin
active sites, conformational
during aerobic reparations, electrons travel downhill in what sequence?
food, NADH, ETC, O2
creating pores in the inner membranes of mitochondria halts ATP synthesis immediately. Why?
leakage of H+ ions
_______% of the potential energy in glucose is made into ATP and the rest of it is _______
31, released as heat
the chemiosmosis synthesis of ATP requires that _________ in the inner mitochondrial membrane be coupled to ______ across the same membrane
e- transport, H+ transport
in cellular respiration the energy that drives most ATP production is supplied by what?
H+ gradient across membrane
Hibernation ______ of respiration
hibernation allows the oxidation of stored fuel to generate _____ without a buildup of _____ which would cause a _______ de to control mechanisms
heat, ATP, shutdown
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