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Philosophy: Plato and Aristotle

Terms in this set (61)

Division made on the presence of conflict in the soul: when anything performs two different acts at once, then the thing must contain more than one part. When soul moves towards one object but rejects it at the same time is the two different acts, proving the soul has more than one part. The essential core of the person is her or her psych (soul); refer to it as the "self".
1. Desires: appetite-bodily needs and desires such as the desire for food, drink, sex. Appetite pulls us in the direction of physical gratification and material acquisition.
Appetites: lowest and most dangerous of our desires; "I want, I want", without regard for consequences.
2. Reason: more reflective, rational part of the show, which sometimes vetoes the urging of the appetites. The voice of reason within us. This element also has desires, but these are rational desires. It is the source of the love of truth and the desire to understand it.
3. Spirit: used in same way we talk of a spirited horse. The willful, dynamic, executive faculty with in the soul. The spirited part expresses itself in anger, righteousness, indignation, ambition, courage, pride, or assertiveness. It is the source of the desire for honor, respect, reputation, and self esteem. The spirit is a Sociedad with the passions or the emotions. Neither physiological drives nor the product of reflective reason. The spirit is a motive force, but it receives its direction from the two other faculties. It can't follow the commands of either the appetite or reason.
1. Aristocracy- love of truth: ideal/rational element embodied in the philosopher King/peoples reason control their appetites/proper subordination of all classes; only an ideal to aim at. Love of truth.
2. Timocracy- love of honor: Spirit is dominant, not region; spirited part of Saul who serves role of reason, rationality. Since nothing is permanent, ideal state declines first into timocracy. Lovers of honor equals overtakes love of common good. A degeneration, because love of honor overtakes love of common good. Love of honor.
3. Plutocracy or Oligarchy- love of wealth: A short step from timocracy... Appetites begin to ascend. Desires for riches/beginning of private property/Rich rise, virtuous sink/breaks unity into classes/rich and poor/they become dangerous equals always wanted more and more/there can never be perfect satisfaction equals always torn between many desires. Love of wealth.
4. Democracy- love of equality: the many poor: all appetites are on the same level. And its principles of equality and freedom reflect character of people; all appetites are seen as being equal, I'll pleasures are equally valued. When the poor win over Rich, liberty and free speech prevails. No one standard is respected above all else; respect for authority decline. All this political equality comes from: a soul that has changed: order between its parts have been destroyed. appetites are all equal, free to act as a mob of passions. One appetite is as good as another: equal rights for all appetites.
5. Despotism or Tyranny- love of power: ascendancy of a single master passion. In individual, continuous indulgences of appetite will reveal degrees. These will lead to a single master passion-strongest and most persistent which will enslaves soul. In state, likewise: we have two classes-rich: take advantage of poor, poor: defend themselves by resisting the Rich. Rich resist. Masses seek out a strong person to be their leader, this person six and acquires absolute power, and slaves people equals tyranny; subjugation; this is the unjust society. So natural and of democracy is despotism.
Demiurge means divine craftsman; yes, along with all the ingredients of things, and the forms or patterns after which things are made are all assume to exist by Plato: there is no theory of creation out of nothing in Plato. Receptacle is a matrix or a medium that has no structure but that is capable of receiving the implies a shin of structure by the demiurge. Space is another word Plato uses for receptacle. It is under arrived, as are the forms and the demiurge. The receptacle is where things appear and Parish. Matter is a reflection of a form, and these forms are expressed through a medium. Generation of things equals out of what he calls the receptacle, "The nurse of all becoming." Material objects are not substances; they are composed of nonmaterial compounds. No substances, there are only qualities. Pythagoreans= Plato followed them: solid objects of matter are described and defined in geometric terms according to their services. Any surface can be resolved into triangles. Any triangle... And two right triangles. These triangular services are the ingredients of the compound known as matter. They are irreducible. The simplest solid is a pyramid that consists of four triangular surfaces. A cube is made of six square surfaces, each square surface is composed of 2 half squares, example, two triangles. Solid never contains anything more than surfaces. Body or molecules are geometric figures. The whole world could be thought of in terms of its geometrical diagram. Matter, therefore, is the appearance of something more basic. Mind: orders all things, that is what explains the variations in things. Cosmo's: the activity of the world soul in the receptacle. World of things: world of phenomena, Greek word for appearances. Geometric services: these are primary and irreducible, are found as raw material in the receptacle and require some organizing agency to arrange them into triangles and then into phenomena. World soul; all this activity is achieved by the world soul: it is eternal, though at times Plato appears to say that is the creation of the demiurge. Although it is eternal, the world of appearance is full of change. Just as in humans: soul represents the eternal element, body it's the principle of change. World of matter and body: it changes because it is composite and always tends to return to its basic constituents, "going into" and "going out of" space. World soul represents what is stable, permanent, a structure, a discernible universe: it is eternal.
Modes of awareness and levels of reality. Correlate the degree or levels of knowledge with the different levels of reality. Epistemology and metaphysical parallel each other.
A = imagination or conjecture. Imagining; sense experience of appearances; we think these are real; example artists and poets; two steps removed from reality; example: form of Humanas - Socrates - painting of Socrates.
B= commonsense belief: double and tangible things; hire form of reality then imagine; but things we experience like colors, wait, etc. our experience under particular circumstances. Still not at the level of scientific principles.
C= thinking: characteristic of the scientist; realities are thought, not scene; but still use symbols, even though knowledge is of obstructed form. Levels of laws or principles. Obstructing the common property of objects in class from the visible objects. But this is still thinking of one truth at a time, not of the interconnectedness of these truths with each other, perhaps, or with there around: we still we have begun to find our way into the realm of knowledge; transitional stage with a higher room of awareness; represents the reasoning in math/special sciences.
D= perfect intelligence/poor Alex: grasping the relation of everything to everything else; seeing the unity of the whole or reality; dealing directly with the form; completely released from sensible object; "through dialectic we are in able to see at once the relation of all divisions of knowledge to each other" -Stumph. Unity of knowledge is the unified view of reality/ perfect intelligence. The mind sores beyond all a Sumption's and sensory crutches to a rational intuition of the pure form; ultimate principles used to derive all subsidiary and specialize knowledge. The final destination of this process of dialectic is the apprehension of the first principle of the whole. Plato called this ultimate source of knowledge and reality "the good"; compares "the good" to the sun. It is a impersonal, rational principle that is the foundation of reality.
Stages a changing develop an individual goes through as potentiality changes to actuality. Potentiality (matter): a cord contains possibility to become a tree. Actuality (form): actual tree that results from the form guiding its process of development.
All things are involved in processes of change.
Each thing possess a power to become what it's form has set as its end:
What turns a seed into a Tree?
It must be some power within;
The power to become that which it's form designated for it to become, its end.
Two types of ends:
Striving to achieve external ends;
Ex. Building a house
Striving to achieve immanent ends;
Es.: fulfilling our nature be the acts of thinking;
This notion of a self- contained end:
Led Aristotle to consider the Distinction
Immanent Ends:
He uses this distinction to explain the processes of change and development:
If the end of an acorn= to be a tree
The acorn is only potentially a tree, but not actually so at this time.
The change from Potentiality to actually= a fundamental type of change
Priority of Actuality over Potentiality:
Yes, something actual emerges from the potential;
But no movement could occur from potential to actual if there were not first of all something actual.
Ex. A child is Potentially an adult, but before their could be a child with that potentiality, there had to be an actually adult.
In nature were involved in change- in generation and corruption- everything would partake of potentiality
But since " Priority of Actuality over potentiality " is the case. I.e, for something to be potential there had to have been an actual, Aristotle thought it was necessary to assume the existence of some Actuality at a level above potential or perishing things.
There is a Being that is pure Actuality, without any potentiality= the highest level of being
The whole visible universe = is in motion = therefore a type of change= therefore, involves potentiality
But al these potential things and the whole potential universe (since it is in motion) and parentheses he must be moved by something that is actually in motion; unmoved mover.
Four different aspects that go into the explanation of any individual thing (causes):
1. Material cause: matters; example- Marble slab is material cost for statue.
2. Efficient cause: origin of the process that produces the article in question. Example-for statue, it would be sculptor and his tools.
3. Formal cause: essence of the item, the form being actualized and it's matter that which makes it the sort of thing. Example-sculptor begins work with statue form in his mind. This is the second most important cause.
4. Final cause: the end or purpose or function it is to for fill. Example-statue made to resemble or depict someone. This is the most important cause.

Since he is not a Platonist, Who has to look to an innate idea in a heaven in order to understand the thing before him, Aristotle will have to find knowledge in the changing thing itself.
Change = motion, growth, decay, generation, corruption
Some = natural
Others = the products of human art.
Things are always taking new form;
New life is born
Statues are made
Causes = not the modern usage of an event prior to an effect; but it meant for Aristotle = explanation
Aristotle looked at life through the eyes of a biologist
Nature is life
All things are in motion-in the process of becoming and dying away;
Process of reproduction = a clear example of the power inherent in all living things to:-initiate change and to reproduce their kind
" all things that come to be come to be by some agency and form something and come to be something"
Therefore, form and matter never exist separately. Change occurs always in into something that is already a combination of form and matter, and that is on its way to becoming something new or different.
Two kinds of objects
Objects caused by nature
Does not have "purposes" in the sense of the reason for but it does have ends
Having built- in ways of behaving
Ex. Seeds sprout
Roots grow down ( not up )
Plants grow
In this process of change, plants move toward their end, that is, their distinctive functions or way of being; in nature changes will involve the same four elements
Happiness: not a state but an activity, look forward and purpose/goal. Well intermediate goals must ultimately aim at some final good, therefore most important task in life is to determine what this chief and final goal of all human activity is: happiness (eudaimonia). Eudaimonia: well-being, living good, having a life worth living. Being a good human being/finding personal for filament means for feeling the end of being human. Pleasure and amusement is not the end goal/ happiness. However a minimal amount of pleasure accompanies the good life.
Highest and most satisfying form of happiness is the link to what is the very best within us; contemplation fits this description.
1. Reason is that part of us that most fully express is our humanity
2. Engaging reason continuously, in the midst of lives other engagements.
3. Rational contemplation is a self-sufficient activity, for we engage in it on our own. is the one activity we engage in for its own sake and not for the tangible results it brings.
5. Contemplation imitates the activity of God, the unmoved mover.

Distinction of Ends
Instrumental ends ( means )
EXAMPLE, taking this course-getting degree-getting a good job-and so on
Last/ final/ chief end
"Eudaemonia "
this is not to be confused with pleasure; happiness is not pleasure, wealth, honor, or virtue
NOT HONOR: The end of life can't be on her, because honor depends on the giver, and it is not really our own; and it seems to be aimed at assuring us of our virtue
No, but happiness will be in activity according to virtue and by virtue will be meant both moral and intellectual virtue; and activity must be manifested over a whole life, and not just for brief periods of time.

Is an activity of man's most peculiar function
Final end of human activity
Man always desires happiness
Highest good or set of goods
Lasts end: sought for its own sake; ultimate; directed to no further end, but everything else is directed to it. Self-sufficient, and satisfies man's function; "that which is desirable in itself... ". The fulfillment of our distinctive function; there are three significant types of life: pleasure, political, contemplative life. Happiness is not amusement: life is serious matter. Serious work is the necessary means to happiness. It is not political activity: that is aimed at results outside of it; it is in contemplation,: of the highest object: I've metaphysics, natural science, and mathematics.
so far it is possible
More a kin to the divine: next best thing is the moral life; it's exercise constitutes perfect happiness. It is intellectual or philosophical activity. Philosophic wisdom is superior to practical wisdom. Most likely to lead to happiness. But without moral virtues: true happiness or flourishing would be impossible;--definition of happiness as contemplation presupposes The satisfaction of moral requirements.... Meaning that one lacking in courage, justice, Temperance, and so on cannot be called happy;-we cannot abandon the requirement of acting excellent toward self, family, friends, and city-the overall good of the agent is at stake.
We do not give ourselves a purpose, it is given to us by nature in makes up the essence of our humanity. Purpose of human life is found in a sort of performance or activity that exhibits excellent; happiness it is not a passive state we achieve, but it characterizes what we do, and how we do it. Ex: winning one game does not make an athlete a champion, one noble act or happy moment does not make a persons life excellent. Life must be lived according to a certain plan or strategy that is furnished by reason. The good life involves both thinking and doing. Rational beings that have desires; you must rationally judge what are the right to principles to follow (actual virtue: excellence of intelligence), and your appetites, feelings, and emotions must be disciplined to follow those rules (moral virtue: excellence of character). Good life must not neglect either of these. Oh good is defined in terms of function; special function of the thing, doing that special function well will make the thing well. Example: knowing what a good knife it would require a prior knowledge of what the knives purposes; purpose/function of a knife is cutting. A good knife would be one that cuts well. Virtue of a good knife is sharpness. What is the function of man? Performing this function well will be good for the person; that function is: what ever is highest and most distinctive part of its existence. Aristotle's ethics will be founded upon the universal characteristics of human nature. Human nature is universal and constant.
Philosophical wisdom theoretical, achieved by understanding the unchanging structure reality. Practical wisdom: intellectual virtue required to be moral, it is the rational understanding of how to conduct one's daily life. We need moral virtue: ability to balance one's desires and emotions. Virtue, human excellence,: a state of character concerned with choice, lying in a mean, The mean relative to us, this being determined by a rational principal, and by the principle by which the man of practical wisdom would determine it. Virtue is a state of character; a morally right person has developed a habit/disposition to do what is right. Example: someone is tempted to cheat, decides not to, compared to someone who easily does not cheat and has no temptation to. Good person delights in virtuous actions and is vexed at vicious ones. Moreover choose can only be acquired through practice leading to habit. Or an action to be a genuine choice in those capable of more appraiser blame, the action must be voluntary. Actions done out of compulsion or of ignorance, the moral responsibility is diminished. River acting by reason of ignorance, allowing self to become drunk given ignorant lead into a crime, does not excuse action because it was self-inflicted. Intellectual virtues focus on our intellectual rather than bodily nature. Philosophical wisdom... Sophia: this is chief among the intellectual virtues: include scientific knowledge and the ability to grasp first principles. Purely DeRidder cool and is achieved by understanding the unchanging structure of reality.
Practical wisdom: this is the intellectual virtue required to be moral... In daily life.
Unmoved mover: something must explain change in motion. Highest sort of reality. Not a transcendent, not anthropomorphic, not personal God we find in the Judeo Christian tradition. As impersonal what is gravity. Operates as the final cost; the source of teleology in the universe. We are driven to be like the unmoved mover; all things in nature or moved by their innate love of God. Unmoved mover must be the highest sort of reality. Everything else is full of potentiality that has not yet been realized. Unmoved mover must be engaged in the most valuable sort of activity: THOUGHT; cannot think about the particulars of the Changing world, but instead think about an object that is on divided and eternal: being itself!

No "creation "in time: since this explanation implies an eternal activity, then there was never a time when there was not a world of things in process
How the unmoved mover causes motion by the power of attraction, not by force EXAMPLE the beloved causes motion in the lover
Unmoved mover equals form, world equal substance
Unmoved mover = final cause
In the way that the form of the adult is in the child, directing the motion of change toward a final end. By being a final cause, the unmoved mover there by becomes an efficient cause of the world; though the power of attraction, it inspires things to strive toward their natural ends
Unmoved mover = is not a = first mover, creator, thinker, purposeful being, willing being, potential being, conscious being unmoved mover = the reason for or the principle of motion