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L1 Alcohols - an introduction
Terms in this set (12)
What is the general formula for an alcohol?
In the C-O-H bonds in an alcohol, there are _ electron pairs around the _______ atom. The C-O-H bonds are based on a _____________ structure, which normally has bond angles of _________ degrees, however there are two ________ pairs and two _____ pairs, so the lone pairs repel and the electron pairs are pushed to be as ______ _______ as possible. Therefore the bond angle is only _______ degrees.
4, tetrahedral, 109.5, bonding, lone, far apart, 104.5
How do the bond angles in the H-C-H parts of an alcohol arise?
4 electron pairs around central atom; all are bonding pairs therefore bond angles are 109.5 degrees
In a primary alcohol, the -OH group is attached to a carbon which...
is itself only attached to one other alkyl group and two hydrogen atoms
What is the carbon atom attached to the -OH group in a secondary alcohol also attached to?
one other hydrogen atom and two alkyl groups
Tertiary alcohol definition:
an alcohol in which the carbon attached to the -OH group is also attached to 3 other alkyl groups
Are the boiling points of alcohols always higher or lower than for the corresponding alkane?
Alcohols tend to be liquid at room temperature. T/F?
3 intermolecular forces existing between alcohol molecules:
London/van der Walls, pd-pd, hydrogen bonds
How does the number of carbons in an alcohol affect its boiling point?
as carbon number increases, so does Mr, therefore there are more electrons, therefore more instantaneous dipoles, stronger vdW forces, more energy to break bonds so boiling point increases
Why are the boiling points of alcohols always higher than those of alkanes?
IMFs in alcohols stronger - alkanes only have vdW forces
The ________ the alcohol, the less soluble in ________, because ____-______ alcohols have a long non-________ section which would disrupt existing __________ bonds between water molecules and only replace with weak ________ forces hence energetically _________.
larger, water, long chain, polar, hydrogen, vdW, unfavourable
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