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APHG Chpt.5 Language
Miss M's Cpt. 5 terms - combo of Rubenstien, deBlij, and various study prep books
Terms in this set (54)
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
The dialect of English associated With upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
Creolized Language or "creole language"
a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous lang. of the people being dominated
a regional variety of a language, with differences in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation; also a form of a language spoken by members of a particular social class or profession
Dialect spoken by some African Americans.
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used.
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, a combination of franfais and anglai." the French words for "French" and "English," respectively.
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family. (EX: Romance Language Branch)
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history. (EX: Indo-European Language Family)
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary. (EX: Indic Language Group
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
A language that is written as well as spoken
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
The ability of two people to understand each other when speaking.
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of the ancient latin, greek, and sanskrit languages which hearth would link modern languages from scandinavia to north africa and from north america through parts of asia to australia
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language
technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to re-create the language that preceded it.
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
the opposite of language convergence; a process suggested by German linguist August Schleicher whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages
collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages.
hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew where in he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 lang. families:Europe's indo-European lang. North African and Arabian languages and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around the Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and onto the Balkans.
Languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese) that lie in the areas that were once controlled by the Roman Empire but were not subsequently overwhelmed.
languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south
languages (Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian) that developed as Slavic people migrated from a base in present-day Ukraine close to 2000 years ago
countries in which only one language is spoken
countries in which more than one language is spoken
a common language of trade and commerce used around the world
diffusion of English words into German, with the "D" for "Deutsch", the German word for "German"
Nomadic Warrior Thesis
Having a Kurgan hearth. The Kurgans infiltrated eastern europe, then later into central and south western Europe. One of the two theories of the origin and diffusion of the indo-European languages. Idea that language diffused via war and conquering of territory
stories passed down through generations by word of mouth
This language family encompasses languages spoken in the People's Republic of China and other small countries in Southeast Asia.
*No single Chinese language - but MOST important is Mandarin (approx.3/4 of chinese speak it)
*Chinese gov't imposing Mandarin countrywide
*Though words in the various Chinese languages are pronounced differently - they are written the same way. They are based on 420 one-syllable words
*Method of writing is characters, most are ideograms (represent ideas or concepts - not sounds)
Kurgan Hearth Theory
Theory of how language first began to diffuse. Started in present day russia north of caspian sea; looking for grasslands for herds; moved west to europe conquring much of east europe (Marija Gimbutas). Diffusion based in war/conquering
Anatolian Hearth Theory
Theory of how language first began to diffuse. According to this theory, Indo-European diffused along with agricultural innovations west into Europe and east into Asia. Diffusion based in Agriculture
Indo-European Language Family
most common language family; languages in this family are spoken by about half the world's people; English most widely used; includes German, Slavic, Baltic, and Romance
fluency in at least two language
a condition in which many languages have diffused from their origins in many ways
the study of local variations within a speech area by mapping word choices, pronunciation, or grammatical constructions
Afro Asiatic Language Family
*4th largest lang family.
*Includes Arabic and Hebrew.
*International significance is larger than its number of speakers because its languages were used to write the holiest books of 3 major world religions (Bible and Quran)
*Large % of world's Muslims have at least some knowledge of Arabic due to Quran.
*UN addedAabic as its 6th official lang in the General Assembly in 1973.
Altaic and Uralic Langauge Family
*Turkish is the most widely used Altaic lang (and it's written in Roman alphabet)
*Many Altaic languages spoken in region where USSR took over - during that time, they were suppressed as the USSR demanded all speak Russian.
*Most speakers of Altaic langs are Muslim and know Arabic due to Quran.
*When USSR broke up Altaic langs became official langs in many former USSR states. (problems persist in these regions as the state boundaries do not coincide with regions where speakers of langs are clustered.
*Estonians, Finns, Hungarians speak langs belonging to the Uralic family.
*Migants carried Uralic langs to Europe when they migrated.
African Language Families
*No one knows how many languages are spoken in Africa
*Nigeria perfect example of that (Over 200 langs spoken there!)
*In Northern Africa language is more simple - Arabic dominates (think of spread of Islam in Northern Africa and it's lang tie!)
*95% of people in sub-Saharan Africa speak a lang of Niger-Congo Family (has 6 branches and many hard to classify langs)
*Largest branch of Niger-Congo is Benue-Congo branch and it's most imporant lang is Swahili
*KHOISAN lang family: 3rd most important lang family of sub-Saharan Africa. Clicking lang
Austronesian Language Family
*Most frequently used Austronesian lang is Malay-Indonesian - most important lang of Indonesia
Japanese and Korean Families
*unrealted to other families.
*Due to isolation as an island
*Chinese cultural traits diffused into Japanese society.
*Japanese uses some Chinese ideograms - BUT also uses two systems of phonetic symbols.
*Develloped unrealated to other lang families due to isolation as a peninsular state
*Written not with ideograms -but with system known as HANKUL. Here each letter represents a sound.