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Biology: Unit 1
Terms in this set (220)
There are more than ______ species of known plants and more is to be discovered and named in the next years.
_____ ____, from seed germination to maturity involves a combination of cellular responses and molecular interaction.
This is an essential requirement for plants' survival.
This allows plants to metabolically utilize the chemical compounds and micronutrients obtained from the surrounding soil.
The presence of these in some plants increases the surface area for water absorption.
These also occur in some plants wherein nitrogen-fixing bacteria establish a symbiosis with the plant to convert nitrogen gas to ammonia.
Shoot and root system
In some plant species, the ___ and ___ ____ have developed a specialized function to adapt to certain environmental conditions.
Ginger/luya is a specialized stem known as _____. _____ serve as storage of starch and protein which permits perennial growth.
These are also specialized plant parts that we see in mangrove or bakawan, These function to anchor and support the mangrove on the regularly water-logged soil.
Xylem and Phloem
The plant transports food, water and minerals through its system by using the ____ and ____. These conducting tissues, when viewed as a cross-section under the microscope, appear to be a mass of cell, arranged side by side.
These are composed of dead lignified cells connected end to end. This allows the transport of water and minerals in the upward direction.
This is composed of sieve tubes, which are closely associated with companion cells to facilitate movement of materials across the cell cytoplasm. These tubes carry the products of photosynthesis in a bidirectional movement to ensure supply of materials for the growth of buds, roots, and other plant parts.
Monocot or dicot
The arrangement of vascular bundle varies depending on whether it is the stem, leaf, or root or if the plant is classified as ___ or ___.
This refers to the supply and absorption of chemical compounds for the growth and metabolism of plants.
Plant nutrients/Essential elements
These chemical compounds for growth are known as __________/___________.
In order for higher plants to sustain their metabolic processes, _____ ______ are obtained from the environment via soil, air and water.
Visual diagnosis, plant analysis, biochemical tests and soil test
Classifying elements as essential for plant growth is based on: (4)
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Major constituent of organic plant material; assimilation of oxidation-reduction reactions
Cell wall synthesis; enzymatic reactions and metabolic pathways; mitotic activity for root development
Structural component of the cell wall and cell membrane; counter-ion in the vacuole
Water splitting system for photosystem II; stomatal opening regulation
Co-factor for metalloproteins and enzymes; photosynthetic electron transport; cell wall metabolism and hormone signaling; oxidative stress response
Regulatory component of proteins and metabolites in roots and leaves
Chlorophyll synthesis; cofactor in activation of ATPase
Photodestruction of chlorophyll and chloroplast structure; enzyme activator; precursor of amino acid, hormones (auxins) and lignins
Enzyme activation (e.g., nitrate reductase, catalase, and ribonuclease); chlorophyll synthesis
Endosperm development and dehydrogenase activity; urease activation for urea breakdown; root nodule growth
General plant growth of roots, stem, leaf, flowers, and fruits; chlorophyll synthesis
Energy transferring process for photosynthesis and respiration (ADP-ATP synthesis); structural component of phospholipids, nucleic acids, coenzymes, and nucleotides
Cell extension and stomatal regulation; enzyme activation (kinase, starch synthase, and nitrate reductase); photosynthetic activity (e.g., CO2 fixation and pH regulation)
Assimilation of oxidation-reduction reactions; participation in various enzymatic processes
Enzymatic function and reactivity; stem elongation; protein and starch synthesis
To achieve the ideal growth, plants need to have a constant level of ___ ___.
These are also utilized by plants to increase or decrease growth in organs that directly or indirectly participate in nutrient acquisition
Proliferation of lateral roots
Used by plants to increase nutrient uptake from nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus deficient soils. Such process demands energy and organic carbon so it can proceed to transportation and accumulation of carbohydrates in organs used for nutrient acquisition.
Some plants store these to fight against photoinhibition brought about by low nitrogen or phosphorus.
Plants may opt to change their metabolic pathways like using other forms of __________ __________ to skip nucleotide phosphate or phosphorus-dependent glycolytic reactions.
Physical and chemical
Other means of barrier used by plants against pathogenic substances
A __ ___ represents the plant immune system in which the microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP) by the pattern recognition of host cell results to MAMP-triggered immunity.
These also play an important role in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. They also regulate the development and signal networks in plants.
Abscisic Acid (ABA)
Lateral root inhibition; nutrient starvation stress-protecting hormone; seed germination, leaf senescence, stomatal aperture; adaptation to environmental stress; embryo maturation; plant pathosystems defense responses
Antagonistic effect on disease susceptibility and resistance; defense response against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens; stimulates cell elongation from wall-loosening factors such as elastin; induces growth of pre-existing roots
Structurally related to animal steroid hormones fr growth, development, and physiological responses; abiotic stress responses; seed germination reproductive development, regulate plant defense from pathogens
Long distance (root-to-shoot) signals for nitrogen assimilation; seed development; regulation of stem-cell related genes; cell differentiation, chloroplast formation
Defense from necrotrophic pathogens and herbivore insects; root hair proliferation and elongation from low iron and lateral root growth from low potassium
Response to nutritional limitation; partial regulation of P signaling
Jasmonic acid (JA)
Defense from necrotrophic pathogens and herbivore insects such as caterpillar, beetles, leafhoppers and spider mites; diverse plant processes such as tendril coiling, leaf senescence fruit ripening, tuber formation and stomatal opening
Salicylic Acid (SA)
Activation of response from biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens; establish systemic acquired resistance; inhibits seed germination; increase seed vigour
He is a renowned expert in Philippine medicinal plants and orchids.
- rebuilt the herbarium at the National Museum of the Philippines
- UP Los Banos
- Saccolabium quisumbingii
He contributed significantly in the development of deep-water rice, flood-resistant rice, and cold-resistant rice varieties..
- UP Diliman
This has advanced significantly over the previous years that breeding crops and mass production are now aided by plant tissue culture and molecular biology techniques.
____ ____ in plants was introduce in the 1980s to create transgenic crops that are of high-yield and pest-resistant.
Genetic engineering utilizes ___ ____ to randomly introduce heterologous DNA into plants, thereby directly manipulating the regulatory elements or expression of endogenous genes.
Synthetic promoter and synthetic transcriptional activators
Both these are designed to fine tune gene expression.
A phytosensor may be developed to detect pathogens. This is activated in plants by using a functional cis-regulatory element combined with signal transduction pathways.
Synthetic transcriptional activators and suppressors
An engineered DNA-binding domains and catalytic effector is used.
Engineered zinc-finger protein (ZFP)
This is used to activate or repress genes in plants by binding to the target DNA sequence.
This is also a promising technology since the gene of interest may be deleted, mutated, or integrated depending on the target trait.
In transgenic tobacco plants, ___ ____ is developed by aiming at the acetoacetate synthase genes.
In soybean genome, ____ are edited to incur mutation on the DCL genes that participate in RNA silencing.
Site-specific integration, multigene transfer, and regulation of gene expression to improve crop yield and resistance
Three modern biotechnological tools applied to plants
Individuals are exact clones of the parent with identical genetic make up.
New individuals are formed from the combination of haploid gametes to form a genetically unique offspring.
This is generated via sexual reproduction
Three common types of asexual reproduction
This involves the production and differentiation of new tissues to replace missing and damaged parts of the body. It involves cellular replication by mitosis followed by differentiation of the tissues. This is highly developed in invertebrates.
This involves forming a new individual from an outgrowth on the parent's body. This is typical of hydras and polyps.
They produce buds that branch off from the side of the body.
This is a development that involves an activated unfertilized egg that undergoes mitosis in the absence of cytokinesis. The two nuclei then fuse together to form the diploid nucleus then further develop as if it had been fertilized. Common in some species of aphids, bees, wasps, and ants.
Division of cytoplasm
These are any organism composed of cells with nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Gametes are structurally similar
Gametes are distinctly different
Hermaphrodites or monoecious
Both male and female reproductive organs occur within the same individual. Common in sponges, flatworms, annelids, and mollusks.
Male converting to female
Female converting to male
This involves one or more intermediate larval forms before the adult form is attained.
The offspring hatch or are born in miniature adult form.
This is sustained by transfer of nutrients from mother to embryo through the placenta or during milk suckling when the young is born.
For ____ _____, the developing embryo is retained within the mother's body in the uterus for the major part of its development.
This serves as a pathway for nutrient exchange to supply the needs of a developing mammalian embryo.
They are oviparous
They are viviparous
The short _______ _______ is followed by long lactation period, which is the exact opposite of the eutherian mammals.
The primary sex organs in animals, which produce the gametes. These produce hormones that regulate the development of gametes and secondary sex organs act as pheromones and produce sexual differences in appearance and behavior.
This is a long sequence of events that take place in the production of sperm and egg.
This refers to the male gamete production
This refers to the female gamete production
Proliferation of germ cells in female mammals begins during _______ and ends before birth.
Female germ cells
Male germ cells
Spermatocytes and oocytes
Spermatogonia and oogonia enter meiosis as __________ and __________.
This marks the beginning of a new organism and involves the fusion of gametes that leads to egg activation and nuclear fusion
Specialized secretory vesicle
Thin tough layer that protects the egg from environmental damage
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Process which involves directly injecting the sperm into the egg cytoplasm
Cleavage starts when the zygote undergoes rapid cell division resulting in cells called ______.
This starts when the zygote undergoes rapid cell division resulting in cells called blastomeres.
In the next stage of embryogenesis, the embryo enters a rearrangement of cells to form the ______, which shows the basic body plan of the adult animal.
Similar to cleavage formation, this occurs based on the group to which the animal belongs.
Dr. Arvin C. Diesmos
He is a well-respected and an award-winning herpetologist in the country.
The vegetal pole invaginates to form a cavity known as the ________. (Sea Urchin)
This is formed and serves as the posterior end of the gut (anus). (Sea Urchin)
This occurs at the yolk-rich region of the embryo.
The internalized cells in the yolk-rich region form the ________. This forms the lining of organs associated with the digestive tract.
A space between the endoderm and mesoderm will appear to form the internal cavity which is the _____.
This gives rise to outer body covering and nervous system.
This forms all the rest of the organs such as the muscles, skeleton and heart.
At this stage (organogenesis), the embryo is called a _____.
Midline of an embryo
Ectodermal cells thicken to shift from cuboidal to ______ ____ at the midline of an embryo.
Rising of either side of the groove
Philippine mouse deer
The most common form of digestion adapted by both unicellular and multicellular animals
- This involves an intracellular digestion by fusion of food vacuole and lysosome.
This contains digestive enzymes that are produced by the rough ER.
This involves secretion of the enzyme where chemical breakdown occurs outside of a cell.
_____ from the muscular gut allows food to move independently due to the body movement.
This also allows storage of food energy, which permits a discontinuous need to find new sources of food.
______, like spiders, release an enzyme to the prey then suck the pre-digested food to their system.
______ have developed jaws and teeth that allow large chunks of food to be ingested and mechanically processed.
Also utilized by some animals, this involves obtaining small particles of food usually in aquatic environment from large volume of water. This is commonly observed in whales and flamingos.
They directly take in oxygen from the atmosphere.
They obtain the supply as dissolved oxygen which occurs in minute amounts.
Simplest multicellular animal
- They have no special organs to facilitate gas exchange but they utilize the pores, canals, and chambers present on their entire body surface.
Cells lining the body of the sponge which initiate and maintain the water current to constantly bring in food and oxygen as well as to remove wastes and CO2
Another form of gas exchange adapted by oligochaetes, this involves a direct exchange across the general body surface and relies heavily on natural convection and active ventilation by the organism.
In most fish, the gills, an outgrowth of the pharynx, is covered with an ______.
During this, the mouth opens, opercula remains closed then the water gets in.
During this, the mouth closes, opercula opens and the water moves from buccal to opercular cavity then out of the opening.
Clusters of neurons
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
All other nerves on the rest of the animal's body are called as the _______.
Sensory input, Integration and Motor Output
Three Stages in the Interpretation of Signals
These are responsible for receiving the external stimuli and internal conditions.
The basic unit of the nervous system
- This is composed of a nucleus from the cell body and two types of extensions: dendrites and axon
These are often numerous in number and highly branched to receive signals from other neurons.
This often occurs singly to transmit signals to neurons and/or effector cells.
This connects the axon to the cell body where signals are generated.
An axon is divided into several branches and ends in a synaptic terminal where a small gap is present called ______.
- The site of communication between neurons
Axons are covered with a _____ _____.
Information is passed from the presynaptic cell to the postsynaptic cell using chemical messengers called _________.
These are also present to maintain the structural integrity of the nervous system.
Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
Glial cells in the CNS
Glial cells in the PNS
Oligodendrocyte and Schwann cells
These are found in the myelin sheath; they provide electrical insulation of the axon and initiate a faster transduction of signal.
-60 to -80mV (millivolts)
The resting membrane potential (RMP) which is the electric potential difference (voltage) when the cell is not transmitting signal.
In the myelinated neurons of vertebrates, a mechanism known as _____ ______ occurs.
nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in between the myeline sheath called __________ depolarize to activate the voltage-gated Na and K channels.
The neurotransmitter travels across the gap between the pre- and post-synaptic terminals called _____ ______.
A common neurotransmitter, this can have an inhibitory or excitatory effect depending on the cell.
Hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
Vertebrate brains' three regions
Junction of the brain and spinal cord; it coordinates autonomic processes and motor responses.
- An extension of the hindbrain
- This assists in regulating motor responses.
This is responsible for the visual processing and some motor control
This is located near the anterior end can be divided into two distinct regions
Diencephalon and telencephalon
Two distinct regions of the forebrain
This contains the thalamus and hypothalamus
Directs an appropriate response to all sensory information
Analogous to the nerve cord, this is covered with a column of vertebrae
These innervate the spinal cord for transmission of signal to and away from the body and transmission of signal directly to the brain is performed by the cranial nerves.
Sense of smell
This has the largest size of the cerebellum and the telencephalon
General senses and special senses
Two divisions of senses
Distributed in the skin, muscles, and joints
Incorporated in organs with complex structures
An animal's tongue usually contains ridges and valleys called ____.
Cone-shaped and distributed on the whole surface of the tongue
Mushroom-shaped found at the tip and sides of the tongue
Folds along the sides of the tongue
Flat mounds surrounded by a trench
This occurs when a taste stimulus causes a change in the flow of ions on taste cells
This sense organ is most useful in animals as this allows locating food, marking territory, identifying offspring and attracting a potential mate.
Microscopic hairs on the surface
- contain the olfactory receptor proteins
Snakes and lizards
- They detect smell using Jacobson's organ
This is found on the roof of the mouth with pits that contain sensory cells.
A dime-sized region containing olfactory receptor neurons inside the nasal cavity
- site of olfactory transduction
Collections of cells within the olfactory bulb
This contains mitral cells and tufted cells that carry signals to the olfactory cortex and then to the orbitofrontal cortex
- plays a crucial role in the behavior of many animals
- can play a role in synchronizing menstrual cycle and affecting moods
A nonspecific response to a broad range of microbes formed by the skin and mucous membranes together with macrophages and other phagocytic cells that ingest and destroy pathogens that penetrates through the external barrier
highly specific response developed only after exposure to pathogens and cells by the recognition of lymphocytes
Skin and mucous membrane
first line of defense in innate immunity
- acts as a barrier on invading pathogens
Sweat, tears and saliva also contain an enzyme called _____ to kill bacteria.
Affected cells in the area of inflammation release a hormone called_____ to relax blood vessel to allow more blood flow.
In acquired immunity, _____ provides a specific defense against pathogens
Molecule or foreign substance
B cells and T cells
two major cell types (acquired immune system)
- produce the antibodies
- some of these remain in the lymphatic system
- can attack infected cells by phagocytosis or by injecting chemicals to break down and kill the pathogen
Killer T cells
T cells that inject chemicals into pathogens
helper T cells
T cells that attract and assist B cells in antibody production
suppressor T cells
T cells that stop the B and T cells after infection
These are chemical signals secreted by endocrine glands that communicate regulatory messages within the body. It is released to the extracellular fluid and then diffused to the blood but only elicit response from specific organs.
Specialized nerve cells known as ____ ____ also release hormones into the blood
- serves as both hormones and neurotransmitters of the endocrine and nervous system
endocrine, neurohormone, neuroendocrine
three types of hormonal pathways
Signal molecules bind to ____ ____, which results in a change in the cell behavior brought about by the signal transduction.
This is the main region that integrates both the endocrine and nervous function in vertebrates. This region of the brain contains neurosecretory cells that regulate the activity of the pituitary gland.
This is divided into the posterior pituitary and anterior pituitary.
The hormones produced by these organs regulate the function of other endocrine glands, thus they are called ____ _____.
This is a dictating factor for the survival of organisms in certain habitats.
This may refer to endothermy to ectothermy.
- they create most of their heat via metabolic processes
- they use external sources of temperature to regulate their body temperatures
range of temperatures
these are important aspects of regulatory control which can happen as a positive response or negative feedback loop
4 stages of embryonic development
this occurs across specialized body surfaces such as gills and gill-like structures or by direct cutaneous exchange
this system regulates water and solute in the body and removes waste to maintain homeostasis
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