NCE Exam: Lifestyle and Career Development
Questions related to the Lifestyle and Career Development portion of the National Counselor Exam.
Terms in this set (123)
Over ___% of marriages are dual-earner marriages.
(Around 60% when looking at marriages with children. In 1950, it was 20.4%.)
Studies suggest how many workers snare a job based on chance factors?
1 in 5
What ____% of all college students have career difficulties?
50 (of all college students)
What are 're-entry women'?
Women who have made the transition from homemaker to jobs outside the home.
A woman with children who was a homemaker but is currently in need of work to support her family.
What is meant by the term 'glass ceiling'?
Suggests women are limited in terms of how far they can advance in the workforce; is a form of occupational gender role stereotyping that can limit a woman's careers.
Women now compromise _____% of the workforce; approximately ____ ______ workers.
46%, 69 million
John O. Crites
Feels the need for career counseling exceeds the need for therapy.
Victor Vroom's Motivation and Management Expectancy Theory
suggests employee performance is influenced by: valance (rewards such as money, promotion, or satisfaction), expectancy (what am I capable of doing?), and instrumentality (will management come through with promised rewards?)
A developmental and educational process within a school system.
A therapeutic service for adults with occupational goals that is performed outside the educational setting.
A Bachelor's degree
on average, this boosts yearly income by $10,000 over that of worker with a high school diploma.
____% of workers have a high school diploma.
"Changing View of Work"
indicates that in the past, work was seen as drudgery, while today it is viewed as a vehicle to express our identity, self-esteem, and status.
Which ethnic group has the highest % of Bachelor's degrees?
followed by Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics
is time away from work where the individual has freedom to choice what he/she would like to do.
Career is sometimes defined as
the total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure.
A leisure activity one engages in for pleasure rather than money.
have less leisure time than single-career families. (Note the up-and-coming specialty, "leisure counseling")
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
states women should have equal work opportunities and equal job pay.
80% Four-fifths Rule
Used to determine discrimination selection processes. The hiring rate for minorities is divided by the hiring rate for non-minorities, and the result must be 80% or greater.
occurs if the quotient from the Four-fifths Rule is less than 80%.
a test is valid for one group, but less or totally invalid for another
Assumes through testing, one's personality can be matched to an occupation geared toward those traits.
-Considered 1st major and most durable theory of career choice.
(Computer-based career programs often adhere to this model.)
A job candidate's personality or skills are matched to that of successful workers.
Elementary school counselors
The only organized profession to work with individuals from a preventative and developmental viewpoint.
Matches worker and work environment (job factors), and has the viewpoint there is one 'best' career for a person. (Also known as actuarial or matching approach.
Classified as structural or grounded in 'differential psychology' (i.e., study of individual differences).
Edmund Griffith Williamson
Chief spokesperson for Minnesota Viewpoint, a group that expanded upon Parson's model of career counseling, and which transcended vocational issues. Purportedly used the Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales.
What population are the most popular career theories based on?
Middle-class or upper middle-class white males who are heterosexual and not disabled.
Parsons, Williamson, and Patterson
Three big names in trait-and-factor theory.
Assumed a person's traits can be measured so accurately that the choice of occupation need only be a one-time process.
Actuarial approach (also trait-and-factor model)
Asserts testing is an important part of the process, and a counselor can match the person with the appropriate job.
Fails to take into account an individual's changes through their lifespan.
Parson's 3 steps to implement trait-and-factor model
Knowledge of self, aptitudes, and interests
Knowledge of jobs, including advantages/disadvantages
Matching the individual with the work
"Choosing a Vocation"
Landmark book written by Frank Parsons in 1909.
The Father of vocational guidance.
Developmental approaches (to career counseling)
delineate stages or specify vocational choice in terms of a process which can change throughout the lifespan.
suggested a personality approach to career based on the premise that a job satisfied an unconscious need.
Proposed needs which are satisfied don't become unconscious motivators
Higher order needs disappear even if rarely satisfied but lower order needs (i.e., safety) will be the major concern
and needs satisfied after a long delay become unconscious motivators
First career specialist to utilize a 2 dimensional system of occupational classification by looking at fields and levels.
Roe's 8 occupational fields
Roe's 6 levels of occupational skill
professional and managerial 1
professional and managerial 2
Roe's 3 basic parenting styles
Depending on which, the child will develop a personality which gravitates toward or away from people.
Roe's theory is similar to Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in what way?
Lower order needs take precedence over higher order needs.
Roe's theory is supported somewhat by which assessments?
Rorschach and the TAT.
(Memory device: Roe begins with R, Rorschach begins with R, TAT is also subjective test)
In terms of genetics, Roe's theory asserts
genetics help determine intelligence and education, therefore influencing career choice.
Career choice is influenced by genetics, parent-child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, personal interests, education, and intelligence.
A given position or similar positions within an organization. (most specific)
Similar jobs occupied via different people in different settings. (broader than job)
A person's lifetime positions plus leisure. (broadest category)
Analyzed career choice using the unconscious mind.
Emphasized sublimation as an ego-defense mechanism in career counseling.
His work is today's most popular career choice approach. Developed Self-Directed Search (SDS) instrument to measure 6 personality types
Holland's 4 assumptions
-6 basic personality types
-most work environments correspond to 6 personality types
-people search out an agreeable environment
-the individual's behavior is determined by interaction of personality and environment
Holland's 6 personality types
(memory device, "AS RICE")
Roe, Brill, and Holland
Classified as personality (or structural) theorists.
Holland's 'social' type
People who prefer to solve problems using interpersonal skills and feelings.
Holland's 'enterprising' type
People who like to sell to others or perform leadership tasks (i.e., Vice Prez of USA)
A client who wishes to work on an assembly line would fit into Holland's _____ typology?
Holland's 'investigative' type
People who like to think their way through a problem. (i.e., scientist, engineer, mathematician, philosopher)
Holland's 'artistic' type
People who tend to shun conformity as well as structure; emphasis on self-expression.
A bookkeeper or clerical worker would primarily fit into Holland's ______ typology?
Holland's 'conventional' type
People who value conformity, structure, rules, and feel comfortable in a subordinate role. (i.e., statisticians, bank clerks) [Memory device: Conventional & Conformity both begin with C]
Holland's theory of career development is a _________-based approach of ____ _____.
Personality, career choice
Holland believed that most people are not pure personality types and thus can be described by a distribution of types such as Realistic, Social, Investigative (RSI).
Which model is the Strong Interest Inventory based upon?
Holland believed a given occupation will tend to attract ____ with ________ _____________.
Persons with similar personalities
Holland and Roe agree that early childhood development influences _____ _______ _________.
Adult personality characteristics
Hoppock's theory is based on the work of ______ and is a personality approach like Holland's.
Henry Murray - created the "needs-press" theory and the TAT projective test.
___________ ______ ______ view career choice as an ongoing or longitudinal process rather than a single decision made at one point in time.
Developmental career theorists (pioneers were Ginzberg, Ginsberg, Axelrad, and Herma)
Until _____, the trait-and-factor model of career counseling was king.
Ginzberg and colleagues now believe development of career choice is three things:
-process continues through life span
-career choice decisions continue through life span
-career choice is irreversible
Ginzberg and associates identified three stages of career development:
-fantasy (birth to age 11)
-tentative (11 to 17)
realistic (age 17 to early 20s)
Ginzberg, Ginsberg, Axelrad, and Herma
Developmental career theorists
Believed career choice is irreversible and the result of compromises between wishes and realistic possibilities.
Most popular developmental career theorists
Super emphasizes ___ ___________.
(i.e., individual chooses career which allows self-concept to be expressed)
(Memory: Super and Self begin with S)
Donald Super's 5 stages of career development
Growth (birth to age 14)
(memory: GEE MD)
Developmental career theories (like Super's) emphasize __________ career-related behavior.
Super's theory includes
the life-career rainbow
Comprised or roles a person plays in all areas of life:parent, homemaker, worker, citizen, leisurite, student, child.
Researched the phenomenon of "career maturity" or "vocational maturity"
Schlossberg's 5 factors of career development
Behavior as adult primarily due to social factors
Behavior a function of one's life stage or age at other times
Gender differences more powerful than age or stage difference
Adults continually experience transitions requiring adaptation
Identity, intimacy, and generativity are recurring themes in adulthood
David Tiedeman and Robert O'Hara
Developed a decision-making theory of 2 parts: anticipation and implementation/adjustment.
Anticipation phase - person imagines self in given career
Implementation/Adjustment phase - person engages in reality testing his expectations
Decision-making theories contend that ______.
individuals have the power to choose from various career options.
Developed social learning approach to career choice based on work of behaviorist Albert Bandura.
Believed career decision-making is a skill that can be LEARNED.
(Memory: K for Krumboltz before L in LEARN)
Behaviorist who created "job club" in the 70s to help veterans gain employment. Leading pioneer in running a behavior modification token economy)
Asserts, "Although occupational choice is ongoing, there are times when key decisions must be made."
Gelatt Decision Model
Predictive system - concerned with probably alternatives, actions, and possibilities
Value system - concerned with relative preferences regarding outcomes
Decision system - provides rules and criteria for evaluating outcome
Linda Gottfredson's career development theory
focuses on circumscription and compromise
Leading method of finding job info in the US is ______.
Another term for finding a job on the internet`
Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH)
good for job trends, easiest to read/understand, contains approx. 800 job descriptions,
first published in 1946, still used by 9 out of 10 high schools
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
first published in 1939 by Dept. of Labor, approx. 30,000 job titles, replaced by O NET
In the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), each job is given a ____ digit code.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) manual
Classifies business by the type of activity they engage in (i.e, service or product)
(memory: working in industry won't make you sic)
Working in a position below skill level.
3 fastest growing occupations (2008)
computer support specialist, systems analyst, database admin
Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE)
published by Dept. of Labor, groups jobs in 14 interest areas to help job seekers research job interests
Self-efficacy career theory is based on the work of
Behaviorist Albert Bandura
Believed in chance factors influencing career, or that one's expectation/belief of success in an occupation caused them to gravitate toward a field.
SIGI Plus, Choices, and Discover are
Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systrems (CACG) or Computer-based Career Information Systems (CBCIS)
The contrast between an individual and others affecting job interviews, performance, etc.
Compensating outside of work for things not allowed on the job (i.e., librarian being quiet all day then getting loud/crazy at night)
Work spilling over into a person's leisure time.
American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA)
Prior name for the American Counseling Association (ACA)
A broad term describing the overall balance of work, leisure, family, and social activities.
Strong Interest Inventory (SCII)
based on John Holland's theory, measures INTERESTS, not activities
Assumes person interesting in a given subject will get satisfaction from working in an occupation with others who have similar interests
Self-Directed Search (SDS)
Based on Holland's work, self-administered, self-scored, self-interpreted to match Holland's 6 types, suitable ages 15+, not recommended for uneducated, illiterate, etc.
Sedentary job requirement
max lifting of 10 pounds
Light work requirement
max lifting of 20 pounds
Medium work requirement
max lifting of 50 pounds
Heavy work requirement
max lifting of 100 pounds
Very heavy work requirement
max lifting of over 100 pounds
Hidden job market
suggests most jobs are not advertised. (Approx. 76% are not.)
You walk into a seminar on career counseling and note the instructor is drawing a hexagon on the blackboard. The instructor is most likely discussing
Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS)
Now the Kuder Career Search with Person Match for online completion; written at 6th grade reading level, effective 7th grade - adulthood.
General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB)
used by state employment security offices, VA hospitals, and related gov agencies; measures 12 job related aptitudes
Occupational aptitude tests like the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) and the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Test (ASVAB) grew out of the _____.
trait-and-factor movement related to career counseling
Primary purpose of an aptitude test
to predict future performance
An aptitude test does not imply that you are adept at the skill at the present moment, it merely speculates about whether or not you could capture these skills with proper training and experience.
Aptitude tests attempt to _______ potential.
The concept of "occupational sex segregation" suggests that
female occupations generally pay less and lack the status of male occupations.
A counselor advises a female to steer clear of police work as he feels this is a male occupation. This is an example of
counselor bias based on gender bias
Research suggests a woman who has the same intelligence, skills, and potential as a man will often
have lower career aspirations than a man.
an individual who lost his job because a company downsized or relocated.
Midlife career change
takes place generally between 35-45
System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI)
career self-assessment aimed at college students
The concept of job clubs as promoted by Azrin and his colleages is ______.
believed accurate career decisions are made by knowing personal needs and finding an occupation that meets a high % of those needs.
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