AP Gov Unit 5 Vocabulary

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Terms in this set (...)

Affirmative Action
any of a wide range of programs, from special recruitment efforts to numerical quotas, aimed at expanding opportunities for women and minority groups
bill of attainder
a law that pronounces an individual guilty of a crime without a trial
clear and present danger test
a means by which the Supreme Court has distinguished between speech as the advocacy of ideas, which is protected by the First Amendment, and speech as incitement, which is not protected
Civil Disobedience
a willful but nonviolent breach of laws that are regarded as unjust
civil liberties
freedoms guaranteed to individuals taking the form of restraint on government
civil rights
powers or privileges guaranteed to individuals and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of government or individuals
Civil Rights Act of 1957
The first Civil Rights Bill passed since Reconstruction; focused on voting rights and desegregation
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
de facto segregation
segregation that is not the result of government influence
de jure segregation
government-imposed segregation
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)
(1996) Defines marriage as man-woman. No state is forced to recognize same-sex marriage
disenfranchise
disfranchise; deprive of a civil right; OP. enfranchise
"Don't ask, Don't tell"
Clinton managed to gain support for a compromise measure under which homosexual servicemen and servicewomen could remain in the military if they did not openly declare their sexual orientation
double jeopardy
Being tried twice for the same crime
Due Process Clause
no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
eminent domain
the power of the government to take private property for public use
Establishment Clause
The first clause in the First Amendment, which forbids government establishment of religion.
Equal Pay Act (1963)
forbids using different pay scales for men and women
Equal Protection Clause
Constitutional guarantee that everyone be treated equally-14th amendment
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
a failed constitutional amendment introduced by the National Women's Party in 1923, declaring that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex."
exclusionary rule
the judicial rule that states that evidence obtained in an illegal search and seizure cannot be used on trial
ex post facto laws
laws that declare an action to be criminal after it has been performed
Fifteenth Amendment
Banned states from denying African Americans the right to vote
Fourteenth Amendment
made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country
free-exercise clause
the second clause in the first amendment, which prevents the government from interfering with the exercise of religion
free-expression clauses
The press and speech clauses of the First Amendment.
freedom of speech
the right to express one's opinions publicly
freedom of the press
the right of journalists to publish the truth without restriction or penalty
freedom of assembly
the right of the people to gather peacefully and to petition government
good faith exception
an exception to the Supreme Court exclusionary rule, holding that evidence seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant can be introduced at trial if the mistake was made in good faith, that is, if all the parties involved had reason at the time to believe the warrant was proper
grandfather clause
an exemption in a law for a certain group based on previous conditions
Jim Crow Laws
State laws in the South that legalized segregation.
lemon test
3-part test for Establishment Clause cases a law must pass to be constitutional. (Lemon v Kurtzman
libel
A written defamation of a person's character, reputation, business, or property rights.
Miranda Warnings
statements concerning rights that police are required to make to a person before he or she is subjected to in-custody questioning
NAACP
A black interest group active primarily in the courts (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Feminist group founded in 1966 to pursue equal rights for women.
Nineteenth Amendment
gave women the right to vote
poll taxes
a tax of $1 or $2 for every citizen who wished to vote, first institutionalized in Georgia in 1877 (used to keep African Americans from voting)
Preclearance
the process of seeking U.S. Department of Justice approval for all changes related to voting
prior restraint
censorship before publication
property rights
The rights of an individual to own, use, rent, invest in, buy, and sell property.
quotas
laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
rights of the accused
The protections that the Constitution guarantees to citizens who are accused of crimes (5th Amendment)
right to privacy
The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government.
selective incorporation
incorporation of rights on a case-by-case basis
self-incrimination
giving testimony that can be used against oneself
separate-but-equal doctrine
the concept that providing separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites satisfies the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment
Strict Scrutiny
a standard used by the Supreme Court in deciding whether a law or policy is to be adjudged constitutional ("compelling government interest")
slander
words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another
symbolic speech
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband
Thirteenth Amendment
Abolished slavery
Title IX
A law that bans gender discrimination in schools that receive federal funds
Twenty-fourth Amendment
prohibited poll taxes in federal elections
Unprotected Speech
Speech that is not protected by the First Amendment and may be forbidden by the government.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
wall of separation
separation of church and state
White Flight
the move of white city-dwellers to the suburbs to escape the influx of minorities.
White Primary
a whites only election
write of habeas corpus
Court order direction authorities to show cause why a person under detention should not be released.