Civics, Declaration of Independence

Terms in this set (13)

GOVERNMENT
--abolishing the charter of the Massachusetts colony, making all offices royal appointments, prohibiting town meetings unless approved by the royal governor
--in some colonies, the King insisted on establishing his own courts, thus violating the principle of separation of powers.
--royal governors were abdicating (out of fear of revolt)
--colonial legislatures were being dismissed (the colonies would be without government, putting them back into state of nature)
--the colonists had repeatedly petitioned the royal governors, the King/Parliament, and the people in England for redress of their grievances, but they were always ignored, or subject to increased violations of their rights. If Kings do not allow citizens to petition for redress of grievances--if Kings are not willing to listen to complaints that citizens have--they have violated the social contract, and can be removed.


COURTS & RIGHT TO TRIAL:
--trials in Admiralty (military) courts, without juries, for any crime that had to do with commerce, taxation, or anything involving harm to British property
--trials that always acquitted British soldiers who were accused of harming colonists
--in some colonies, the King insisted on establishing his own courts, thus violating the principle of separation of powers.
--Americans could be tried far from the place where the alleged crime had occurred--they could even be taken to England
--British soldiers were always acquitted, even of capital crimes.

ARMY
--hiring German soldiers (Hessians)
--keeping a standing army, without colonist's consent
--quartering troops
--trying to bribe slaves and Indians to fight against the colonists
--American vessels and cargoes were being seized, and sailors were being forced to work for the King, perhaps to be ordered to fight against their own people
--the King repeatedly said, starting in 1774, that the colonies were almost in a state of insurrection, and that if necessary, that rebellion would be repressed by force

PROPERTY & TAXES
--giving property (Ohio Country) to Canada, and giving benefits to the French in Canada, even though the colonists had fought in the French & Indian War
--it became harder and harder to get royal grants of property, even though the King himself had never used the property
--taxation without representation
--in some colonies, the King dismissed the colonists' own courts. Without real courts, the colonists could not protect their rights
--burning property up and down the coast (Lexington & Concord, Charleston, northeast Massachusetts, Rhode Island)

COMMERCE
--appointment of more and more customs officials, establishment of more Courts of Admiralty to try Americans suspected of smuggling
--seizing cargo off of American ships
--closign the port of Boston
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