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Growth and Development
Terms in this set (71)
Who are the four theorists and what do they talk about?
Freud- early childhood experiences form unconscious motivation for actions
Kohlberg- moral development
What are the patterns of development?
Cephalocaudal- control of head before control of legs
Proximaldistal- control of arms before control of fingers
What are critical periods?
Things that happen during these periods may have an effect for life. More susceptible to influences.
Describe Erickson's Stages
Trust vs. mistrust- birth to 1 year
Autonomy vs Shame &doubt- 1 to 3 years
Initiative vs guilt- 3-6 years
Industry vs inferiority- 6 to 12 years
Identity vs Role confusion- 12 to 18 years
If met, move to next stage.
Describe Freud's theory.
Sexual energy centered in specific parts of the body at certain ages. Unresolved conflict at a certain stage leads to a fixation of development at that stage.
Oral- birth to 1 year (derives pleasure from mouth)
Anal- 1-3 year (control over body secretions)
Phallic- 3-6 years (works out relationships with parents)
Latency- 6-12 years
Genital- 12 years to adulthood
Describe Piaget's theory
Child's view of the world is largely influenced by age, experience and maturational ability
Sensorimotor- birth to 2 years
Preoperational- 2 to 7 years (can't see anything from someone else's point of view. Can't reason beyond what they can see)
Concrete operational- 7 to 11 years (more logical thinking takes place. Coherent)
Formal operational- 11 years to adulthood (more flexible, adaptable)
Describe kohlbergs theory
Children under 4 do not have their own morals. They are influenced by their environment.
Preconventional- 4 to 7 years. Determine what's good or bad by consequences.
Conventional- 7 to 12 years. More concerned about confirming. Want approval from parents.
Postconventional- 12 and up. Concerned about laws and rules of society. Some people never reach this level.
What are growth charts used for?
To look at trends and patterns of growth in a child. May vary a little but watch for sudden increases or decreases.
What is the Denver 2 developmental screening tool?
A test for cognitive and behavioral problems in preschool children.
What is the work of childhood?
What are some characteristics of infants? (Birth to 1 year)
Attachment to parent
Increased muscle control
Memory of past experiences (repetitive actions)
Imitation of gestures
By when has the birth weight doubled? Tripled?
By when does the birth height increase by 50%?
When do head and chest circumference equalize?
When do the fontanels close?
Posterior: 6-8 weeks
Anterior: 12-18 months
*should be soft and flat!!
Gross motor first or fine motor?
When should an infant be able to lift his head, chest, and upper abdomen and put weight on arms?
When can an infant sit up with assistance, by himself, and with play?
With assistance at 2 months
Alone in tripod position at 6 months
Can sit and play at 8 months
When do infants develop specific grasps?
Newborns will grab unintentionally
Palmar grasp at 4-6 months. Uses entire hand to pick up an object
Pincer grasp at 8-9 months. Can grasp small objects using thumb and forefinger
What are the speech milestones?
1-2 months: coos
2-6 months: laughs and squeals
8-9 months: babbles mama/dada as sounds
10-12 months: mama/dada specific
What is the hearing test done at birth?
When is it appropriate to add additional fluids into baby's diet?
When can baby have whole milk?
Dietary fat restrictions in infancy?
None. Except for inappropriate drinks and food.
How should food be introduced?
One food at a time. One new food every 4-7 days to detect allergies.
Vegetables >> fruits >> meats.
Delay citrus fruits, meats until 6 months.
Delay honey and eggs until 12 months.
What is the period of purple crying?
Babies cry the most between 2 weeks and 3-4 months of age.
P- peak of crying (month 2)
U- unexpected. No reason
R- resists soothing
P- pain like face
L- long lasting
When does the first tooth erupt?
What is the issue with bottle propping?
Tooth decay and aspiration
Refer to dentist by what age?
Stressors for infants?
Sense parents anxiety
Changes in routines
Separation from parents
Illness, not death
*Reactions: crying, kicking, moving away
What happens when infants are separated from parents?
Characteristics of Toddlers
Limited language skills
Striving for independence
How do you find the adult height of a toddler?
Double height at 2 years old
How many teeth do toddlers usually have?
When do toddlers start climbing? running?
climbs 18 mo
run 2 year
Gross motor development of 3 year old
Throw large ball
Put on simple clothing
Walk on tip toe
Fairly good bowel and bladder control
walks backward and hops on one foot
Fine motor development of toddler?
2 year: hold a crayon and color vertical strokes
turn the page of a book
build a tower of SIX blocks
3 year: copy a circle and a cross, build usuing small blocks
4 year: use scissors, color within the borders
5 year: write some letters and draw a person with body parts
When should a child be 50% understood by strangers? 75%? 100%? vocab size?
18-20 months: 50%, 20 to 30 words
22-24 months: 75%, >50 words, two word sentences
30-36 moths: 100%, 1,000 words
Nutrition in a toddler
Food takes on social component
Transition to cup
Lack of appetite
Develops food preferences
When does a child have a full set of 20 teeth?
When does a child begin losing teeth?
Stressors for toddler
Fear of the dark
What type of play is specific to toddlers?
Not necessarily playing together, but playing next to each other
When should stranger anxiety dissipate? temper tantrums?
2.5- 3 years
What age is most at risk for illness and hospitalization?
Characteristics of Preschoolers?
Increased language skills
Limited concept of time
How much does a preschooler grow each year?
Gross motor skills of preschoolers
4 years: jumps rope, throws and catches ball
Fine motor skills in preschoolers
Building with small blocks
Playing board game
Draw picture of self
Development of sexuality in preschoolers
Form strong attachment to opposite sex parent while identifying with same sex parent
Modesty becomes a concern
"Dressing up like mommy or daddy"
Questions arise about sexual reproduction
Social development in preschoolers
Overcome stranger anxiety and fear of separation from parents
Still need parental security and guidance
Security from familiar objects
Play therapy beneficial for working through fears, anxieties, and fantasies
Speech in preschoolers
3 years: give first and last name, vocabulary of approx. 900 words, complete sentences of 3-4 words, asks questions
4 years: vocab of 1500 words, tells exaggerated stories, repeats everything
5 years: vocab of 2100 words, sentences have 6-8 words with all parts of sentences, knows days of week, months, colors
When do children start losing teeth?
Stressors for preschoolers
Fantasy vs. Reality
When do children begin interacting with each other during play?
Characteristics of school age child
Increased language skills
Interest in acquiring knowledge (industrious)
Need activities that they can enjoy and excel in
Improved concept of time
Increased self control
Developing relationships with peers
Do girls or boys grow faster
When does vision reach maturity
When do lungs/alveoli fully mature?
Gross motor skills of school aged children
Can ride two wheeled bike
Likes organized competition
8-10 years: team sports
When do girls typically begin experiencing body changes?
When do children begin forming life long nutritional habits?
Stressors for school aged children
Bodily injury/invasive procedures
Separation from family and friends
Loss of control/privacy
Characteristics of adolescents
Striving for independence
Peer relationships/group identity
Concern with appearance
What are some factors in the growth and development in adolescents?
Developing capacity for abstract thinking
Low point in relationship with parents
Feelings of inadequacy
When does puberty begin in girls? boys? Complete?
Girls begin between 8-14 years, complete in 3 years
Boys begin between 9-16 years, complete by 18-20 years
Tanner stages: Girls
Describe stage of pubertal growth based on breast size/shape and pubic hair.
Appearance of breast buds (8-13 years)
Rapid increase in height and weight
Menstruation (roughly 2 yrs after appearance of breast buds)
Abrupt deceleration of linear growth
Tanner stages: Boys
Pubertal growth based on penis size/shape/scrotum and pubic hair
Testicular enlargement accompanied by thinning, reddening, and increased looseness of the scrotum (9-14 years)
Pubic hair, axillary hair, facial hair, chest/back hair
Rapid increase in height
Abrupt deceleration of linear growth
Stressors in adolescents
Loss of independence/control
Loss of privacy or identity
Loss of peer group acceptance
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