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bio 220 chapter 3
Terms in this set (31)
Prokaryotes can be distinguished from eukaryotes by?
-The way their DNA is packaged (lack of nucleus and histones)
-the make-up of their cell wall (peptidoglycan and other unique chemicals)
-their internal structures (lack of membrane-bound organelles)
ALL bacterial cells posses what?
-a cell membrane
-one (or a few) chromosomes
Most bacterial cells posses what?
- a cell wall
- a surface coating called a glycocalyx
Some but not all bacterial cells posses?
-flagella, pili, and
-an outer membrane
on average prokaryotic cells are 1 micron. True or False?
When cells of one species vary in shape and size this is called?
small bunches or tufts of flagella
Flagella at both poles of the cell
flagella dispersed randomly over the surface of the cell
bacterial movement in response to chemical signals
used for attatchment
used for attatchment and genetic exchange during conjugation
-composed of polysaccarides, proteins, or both
-varies in thickness
-used to avoid phagocytes and for adhesion
-lies outside of the cytoplasm
what layers are the cell envelope composed of?
-outer membrane in some bacteria
Repeating framework of long glycan (sugar) chains cross-linked by short peptide (protein) fragments
Peptidoglycan wall provides strength to resist rupturing due to osmotic pressure. True or False?
Peptidoglycan wall is present in most bacteria. True or False?
Gram Positive cell
-Teichoic acid, lipoteichoic acid
Gram negative cell
who developed the gram stain and when?
Hans Chrisitian Gram in 1884
what classification system is used to classify prokaryotes?
Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology
What are the 4 major divisions based on cell wall structure that Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriologyn uses to classify prokaryotes?
-Gracilicutes: gram-negative cell walls and thus are thin-skinned
-Firmicutes: gram-positive cell walls that are thick and strong
-Tenericutes: lack a cell wall and thus are soft
-Mendosicutes: archaea with unusual cell walls
A lipid bilayer with proteins embedded
what are cytoplasmic membranes comprised of?
phospholipids (30%-40% of the membrane mass) and proteins (60%-70% of the membrane mass)
What is a major action of the cell membrane?
to regulate the passage of nutrients into and out of the cell
DNA of most bacteria exists in what form?
a single circular bacterial chromosome
DNA is aggregated in a dense area of the cell called ?
Many bacteria contain other, nonessential pieces of DNA called?
the flagella is composed of 3 main parts which are?
the filament, hook, and basal body
This set is often in folders with...
bio 220 chapter 1
bio 220 chapter 6
bio 220 chapter 7
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