Psychology Personality Exam 1 Review
Terms in this set (160)
An individual's distinct and relatively
enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors; complex amalgram of positive and negative personality traits that emerge or not, depending on circumstances.
Behavioral influences commonly studied
Stable- Internal (dispositional), Stable- External (situational), Unstable- Internal,
Stable- Internal (dispositional)
psychological traits, temperaments, attitdues, beliefs, and values
Stable- External (situational)
situational factors, emotional environment, stable local norms, beliefs, and values
situational flux, chance events
current emotional climate
unstable local norms, beliefs, and values
way people think, act, and feel- even in the same situation
cross-temporal and cross-situational consistency
despite differences in people, individuals display-------- and ------- in their own actions, thoughts, and feelings
used to guide and regulate ones own behavior, developed as self-aware agents
Continuity and change
Personality displays both ________ & ________ across the lifespan
There is room for both __________ & _________ factors to influence behavior
free will vs determination
to what extent we decide our own fate
emphasis on genetic prediscposition and traits
BF Skinner argued behacior is not freely chosen but is a result of environmental forces and historical experiences
Six Approaches to the study of personality
-The psychoanalytic approach
-The trait approach (Allport, Cattell, Eysenck)
-The biological approach (Eysenck, Gray, Plomin)
-The humanistic approach (Rogers, Maslow)
-The behavioral / social learning approach
The cognitive approach (Kelly, Markus, Mischel, Beck, Ellis)
The psychoanalytic approach
people's unconscious minds are largely responsible for important differences in their behavior styles
The classic psychoanalytic approach (Freud)
The neo-Freudians (Adler, Jung, Erickson, Horney, Fromm)
The trait approach
identify where a person might lie along a continuum of various personality characteristics.
point to inherited predispositions and physiological processes to explain individual differences in personality.
Identify personal responsibility ad feelings of self-acceptance as the key causes of differences in personality
The behavioral/social learning approach
Theorists explain consistent behavior patterns as the result of conditioning and expectations
Behaviorism (Watson, Thorndike, Skinner)
Social learning theory (Rotter, Bandura)
look at differences in the way people process information to explain differences in behavior.
include most of Northern European countries and the US.
-place great emphasis on individual needs and accomplishments
-People think of themselves and unique and independent
-more concerned about belonging to a group, such as a family, tribe, or nation
-People are more interested in cooperation than competition
-Asian, African, Central American, and S American countries
Hypothesis Testing Approach
From observations , knowledge about previous theory and research, and careful speculation, researchers generate a hypothesis about why people behave the way they do.
general statement about the relationship between constructs or events; generally the beginning of personality research
2 characteristics of a good theory
simplest theory that can explain the phenomenon is the best
can generate a testable hypothesis
formal prediction about the relationships between two or more variables that is derived from the theory
determine how the groups in the experiment are divided; manipulated by the experimenter
ex: how much of a drug is received; how much anxiety is created, type of story read, etc
known as the treatment variable
measured by the investigator and used to compare the experimental groups
known as the outcome variable
gender, political affiliation, race
height, weight, etc
an applied branch of psychology that deals with psycho-logical measurement
self report questionnaire
The most commonly used approach
how questionnaires are scored
emphasize the opposite of previous question; reverse shyness points for opposite
Ex: "I am socially awkward. I don't find it hard to talk to strangers."
Plot on x and y axis
favorite statistic in personality research; appropriate statistical test when we want to understand the relationship between 2 measures; notated as "r"
consistency or measurement
- face validity
- concurrent validity
- convergent and discriminant validity
- criterion (predictive) validity
All items on the test measure the same thing Item-to-total correlation (5%)
Corrected item-to-total correlation-
Split-half reliability- split items into 2 1/2 scales; sub-scale = sub-scale
test now and month later
when a test appears to be measuring what it is intended to measure
extent to whcih scores from the test correlate with other measures of the same construct
the extent to which a test score does not correlate with the scores of theoretically unrelated measures
it is important that test scores predict relevant behavior
A -> B
Changes in Variable A cause corresponding changes to occur in Variable B;
Ex: Male happiness (B) is dependent on the attractiveness of partner (A)
B -> A
Changes in Variable B cause corresponding changes to occur
in Variable A
Male happiness attracts pretty women
A B Reciprocal
Changes in Variable A cause changes in Variable B, which in turn cause changes in Variable A, which in turn
Ex: Male compliments her on her beauty so she works harder to be even prettier
C->B and A-B
Changes in Variable C cause corresponding changes in both Variable A and B therefore covary even though neither on causes the other
Ex: Money (C) attracts more attractive females (A) AND makes the male happier (B)
Situational Moderating Variables
Specify in which types of situations traits will be good versus poor predictors of their trait-relevant behaviors
Ex: Psychologically weak versus strong situations
Personal Moderating Variables
Specify for which types of people traits will be good versus poor predictors of their trait-relevant behaviors
Ex: Private self-consciousness
Criterion Moderating Variables
Specify the types of behaviors that traits will predict either well or poorly
Ex: Level of aggregation of the behavioral measure
Methods for measuring aspects of personality
Trait inventories (e.g., self-report questionnaires)
State experience measures (e.g., mood ratings)
Ability tests (e.g., intelligence test)
Subjective ratings (e.g., self-ratings of behavior)
Objective ratings (e.g., observer ratings of behavior)
Behavioral measures (e.g., counts of specific behaviors)
Physiological measures (e.g., galvanic skin response)
Was his mother's favorite
Was not close to his father
Was enormously ambitious
Was trained as a medical doctor
Studied hysteria and hypnosis with J-M. Charcot and Josef Breuer
Applied his genius and inven-tiveness to the creation of the psychoanalytic approach
Was a prolific writer and a charis-matic mentor
Achieved his outsized ambition, but at a cost
Freud's models of the mind: The topographical model
- The conscious mind- thoughts, feelings, perceptions
- The preconscious mind-
memories and stored knowledge
-The unconscious mind- fears, unacceptable violent and sexual urges, irrational wishes, selfish needs, shameful experiences
Above the water-
thoughts and perceptions
just below the water-
memories and stored knowledge
Deep below the water-
fears, violent motives, immoral urges, selfish needs, irrational wishes, unacceptable sexual desires, shameful experiences
-The first aspect of consciousness
-The pleasure principle
"if it feels good, do it."
-The third aspect of consciousness
The morality principal
"You shouldn't do that"
-The second aspect of consciousness
-The reality principle
"If I do it, what happens?"
the id's boundless drive for immediate gratification
the ego's capacity to delay gratification.
life or sexual instinct; Freud attributed most of our life instincts to this
death or aggressive instinct
Why Was Oedipus Complex Important to Freud?
Freud believed that the superego is fully developed through the Oedipus Complex.
occurs when the id threatens to overwhelm ego constraints, leading to unacceptable or impulsive behavior
Ex: kid in mall needs to pee, ego says no, id says do it
occurs when the ego feels overwhelmed by threats from the external environment
Ex: There are a lot of issues with peeing in the store
occurs when the ego is threatened by the superego's punitive response to some forbidden thought, feeling, or action
Ex: Chocolate chip cookies are out in the open- Id says "do it", ego says "maybe not", superego says "don't do it"
Excessive gratification or frustration; In development it occurs when children leave behind some psychic energy tied up in resolving a crisis.
The Psychodynamics of Personality
Unconscious sexual and aggressive urges find acceptable forms of expression. (ex. Dreams, jokes, slips of the tongue, anxiety symptoms.)
The Dynamics of Personality
To minimize the anxiety due to the conflict between the id and the superego, the ego uses defense mechanisms.
Unconscious methods of minimizing anxiety by denying and distorting reality.
Active effort of ego- pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into the unconscious mind.
ex. a girl was abused by her uncle, and she pushed the memory of it away, so she can't remember any of it as an adult.
The ego replaces a less acceptable motive with a more acceptable one.
ex. College student doesn't get into the fraternity of choice, so he tells himself "it was a hard fraternity to get into and that most people don't get in."
Ego shifts feelings toward an unacceptable object to another, more acceptable object.
ex. A woman can't take her anger out on her boss, so when she goes home she takes it out on her husband.
The ego replaces an unacceptable impulse with a socially acceptable one.
ex. A man with strong sexual urges becomes an artist who paints nudes.
the ego attributes personal shortcomings, problems, and faults to others.
ex. A man who has a strong desire to have an extramarital affair accuses his wife of flirting with other men.
The ego transforms an unacceptable motive into it's opposite.
Ex. A woman who fears her sexual urges becomes a religious zealot.)
The ego refuses to acknowledge anxiety-producing realities.
ex. A man won't acknowledge that he has cancer even though a team of doctors has diagnosed his cancer.
removing the emotional content from the threatening idea; considering something in a strictly intellectual, unemotional manner
Freud's psychosexual stages of development
Oral, Anal, Phallix, Latency, Genital
The Oral Stage
first 18 months of life; fixation at this stage can result in oral dependency or oral aggressiveness
Nursing provides nutrition and bonding
The Anal Stage
around 18 to 36 months; fixation at this stage can result in anal-compulsiveness or anal-expulsion
The Phallic Stage
around 3 to 6 years; the period in which the Oedipal or Electra complex must be dealt with and resolved
The Latency Stage
around 6 to 11 years; the period in which same-sex friendships are predominant
Not a lot of sexual orientation
Kids begin to think of parents in a psychosexual way: boys cannot have mother because dad is competitor so they begin to view dad as role model
The Genital Stage
puberty years; fixation at this stage can result in the inability to establish a mutually satisfying sexual relationship with another person
How to direct sexual energy is overwhelming for youth
Talk Therapy; dream interpretation;free association, hypnosis, Freudian slips, "accidents," symbolic behavior
the goal is to bring crucial unconscious material into consciousness, where it can be examined in a rational manner from an adult perspective. Used hypnosis to do this often.
Proposed the idea of the inferiority complex, Young children feel weak, dependent, and small.
Spend much of life compensating for those feelings by striving for superiority (success).
Believed that siblings and other family members also affect the child.
Came up with sibling rivalry.
Common outcomes in psychotherapy
When you get really close to a critical piece of information, patient changes the subject. Therapist knows they are close, but doesn't give up.
Happens when patient treats therapist as someone that they have feelings for other than being the doctor, therapist needs to better understand the relationship with that person who is in real life. Ex. Females treat therapist as father.
Getting at unconscious material
Manifest content on forefront versus latent content
Symbols representing unconscious thoughts, feelings, and desires
- Penis: tower, fountain, pencil, snake
- Vagina: cave, box, pouch, doorway
- Sexual intercourse: dancing, riding, climbing
- Male erection: flying, sailing a kite
Latent dream content
actions, events, characters symbolize something else
Present individuals with ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or vague pictures
The Rorschach Inkblot test
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The Human Figure Drawing Test
can gain insight about what is going on in the unconscious
Getting at unconscious material
A test in which people are asked to report what they see in a set of inkblots
Developed by Herman Rorshcach (1844-1922)
• Published Psychodiagnostik in 1921
• Ink blots on papers shown to patient and patient describes what they see
o Hard to diagnose so not widely used
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A test in which people are asked to make up stories from a set of ambiguous pictures.
Developed by Henry Murray (1883-1988)
o Developed test in 1930
• Show patient black and white photos and asks for explanation of photo
Human Figure Drawing Test
Draw a human figure- assumption is figure represents you.
o Analyze drawing
Free Association Test
allow whatever words come to mind to flow freely
say mom, get dad bright, dark,etc NOT mother-murder
say the wrong thing and symbolized what one is thinking about
say something that isn't meant to be insulting, but is.Later you accidently break something. Is it an accident?
mother loves daisies, kid hates mother so he wipes dirty feet on her daisy rug.
Criticisms of Psychodynamic tests/theory
-Some of Freud's ideas weren't original or groundbreaking
-Some of Freud's hypotheses aren't testable
-Freud's case study data were biased in the direction of psychopathology
-The tone and emphases of Freud's theory reveal his personal biases
Too much emphasis on early experiences, Too much faith in unconscious mind's control, Too much emphasis on sexual instincts.
Strengths of Psychodynamic tests/theory
-Freud proposed the first comprehensive theory of human behavior and personality
-Freud proposed the first system of psychotherapy, along with an array of useful techniques
-Freud popularized and promoted important psychological principles and concepts
Importance of childhood experiences, Development proceeds in stages, Role of unconscious processes.
Percentage of Male Dream Characters for Men and Women
Data collected across many different cultures around the world reveal that males make up about 50% of the
characters in women's dreams , but about 65% of the characters in men's dreams.
Why? How can we account for this difference?
o Boys tend to want more intimacy from moms but fear dad.
Freud's explanation: unresolved feelings of conflict with the father deriving from the Oedipus complex
o In most cultures around the globe, men are the primary bread winner so they have more contact with
other males so they are more likely to have them in their dreams.
o Boys notice different genitals
o Penis Envy in girls, which is why "men are better than women"
Evidence for the Value of Dreaming
Emotional disorders are associated with sleep difficulties and reduces REM sleep
Individuals who are deprived of REM sleep have more difficulty with stressful tasks.
The REM rebound effect suggests that REM sleep serves an important and necessary function.
o Waking from REM sleep often actually makes a person have more dreams
Trauma victims who avoid thinking about their experience during the day often have dreams about the
traumatic event at night.
Anxiety and Recurrent Dreams
Researchers find that most recurrent dreams include threatening images, usually in the context of situations in
which the dreamer is in danger
People who report recurrent dreams also report a higher level of anxiety in waking life. How would the
psychoanalytic approach account for this finding?
College students who have recurrent dreams report more of them during exam weeks than in weeks without
People with higher levels of anxiety also report more classic sexual symbols in their dream contents (pencils,
boxes, flying, etc) than people with lower levels of anxiety do.
Common misbeliefs about dreams
Dreams last only a minute or two.
Dreams occur only before waking.
Many people dream rarely or not at all.
The mental activity that occurs during non-REM sleep is simply the vestiges of the dreams that occur during REM sleep.
People dream in proportion to the number and intensity of their personal problems (Freud and Adler).
Dreams can't hurt you.
Research findings indicate that all of these beliefs are
o Collect Data from brain and other body parts. Penile erections not directly related to dreams
o When woken out of REM periods of sleep and asked to describe what was happening, it seems they
People have their own preferred defensive style
Boys who experienced a lot of stress a s3 years old were more likely to still use the immature defense
mechanism of denial 20 years later, compared to boys who experienced less stress
Adults who commonly rely on immature defenses such as denial have been found to have more problems with
hostility, depression, and alcohol abuse than those who use mature defenses
The use of immature defenses in adulthood is also associated with greater problems in psychological
functioning, including with major life stresses.
Freud's Theory of Humor
-Freud viewed humor as an acceptable way to express otherwise unacceptable impulses (sexual and aggressive)
-The concept of catharsis
-Hypothesis 1: We should find a joke funnier when its target is a person or a group we don't like.
-Hypothesis 2: Hostile humor might reduce one's tendency to aggress more than non-hostile humor.
-Hypothesis 3: The more tense and anxious we are, the funnier we will find a joke that allows us to release that tension and/or reduce that anxiety (Shurcliff, 1968).
Concept of Catharsis
outside amphitheater of ancient Greeks. Built tension to maximum and then had a
dramatic event to reduce the tension. Joke would create sexual or other type of tension and then the punchline
would be laughable. The tension relief creates the laughter, not the actual joke.
Psychoanalytic view of Hypnosis
Hypnosis involves the induction of either an altered state of consciousness or a division of consciousness.
Part of the mind is either unaware of what is happening during the hypnotic episode or can be instructed to retain no awareness of it upon "awakening."
Age regression and pain analgesia can be effected during hypnosis.
Social/Cognitive View of Hypnosis
Hypnosis does not involve an induction of an altered state of consciousness, although hypnotic subjects might act as if it does.
Hypnotic subjects are aware of what happens during the hypnotic episode, but might later act as if they do not retain the memory of these events.
Age regression and pain analgesia cannot be effected during hypnosis.
deepy hypnotized people experience a division of their conscious: one part enters an altered state, while the other part remains aware of what is going on during the session
What's more important—the skill of the hypnotist or the susceptibility of the hypnotic subject?
The susceptibility of the hypnotic subjec
Is hypnotic susceptibility stable over time?
Yes, with a test-retest correlation as large as .71 over 25 years
Which personality trait is the best predictor of hypnotic responsiveness?
The trait of absorption (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974)
Schurliff's Study (1968)
Low Tension Condition: Asked to hold the rat for seconds. "These rats are bred to bee docile and easy to
Moderate Tension Condition: Asked to take a small sample of the rat's blood. "This task is easier than it looks..."
High-Tension condition: Asked to take 2 cubic cm of blood from the rat "This task is....
o They all found in the cage to be a toy rat, which reduced stress, highest relief in High Tension Situation
o Confirmed Freud's thoughts that tension relief created the laugh, not the joke
Striving for Superiority
-begins with feelings of inferiority as a weak, helpless child
-the more inferior one feels, the more they strive to overcome the feeling of inferiority
Too many feelings of inferiority lead to...
Excessive feelings of inferiority- belief that one is vastly inferior to everyone else
tend to run away from challenges
Believed that achievement alone is not indicative of mental health
Gemeinschaftsgefuhl- German for social interest
Successful business people achieve satisfaction and superiority through their accomplishments by reaching goals with consideration of the welfare of others.
provide good product at fair and reasonable price
Poorly adjusted people express striving for superiority through selfishness and at the expense of others.
politicians seeking personal gain
Parental influences on personality development
The optimal parenting style- "good enough" parenting; don't have to be perfect
Problematic parenting styles:
- Pampering-spoil them, indulge them, give them all they want and ask for nothing in return, leads to entitlement
- Neglect - kids are too big of a hassle so they don't pay attention to child; drug addicts often guilty of this
work hard to meet adult standards from an early age. They tend to achieve more in life and assume positions of greater responsibility, but they also tend to be more anxious and stressed.
"problem children, neurotics, criminals, drunkards, and perverts"?
due to the fact that they are pampered as only child
research supports that 1st borns are neurotics- because their only role models at birth are adults- parents
have more accomplishments- more politicians- because they strive more for superiority
don't stand out as a group. They tend to be more like firstborns, however, when the age gap between them and their older sibling(s) is large, rather than small.
"de-throned" and therefore motivated to strive for superiority
tend to be charming, sociable, and relatively popular with their peers. They can also be somewhat rebellious and unsatisfied with the existing "social order."
pampered throughout their childhoods to the point of being spoiled
may be more immature as adults
tend to resemble firstborns in many respects. They often feel particularly burdened by the responsibility of fulfilling their parents' hopes and dreams for them.
-Was born in a small Swiss canton
-As a child, he was a loner who was extremely introspective
-Earned his medical degree in 1900
-Began a correspondence with Freud, whom he met in 1907
-Became Freud's disciple and heir apparent, and accompanied Freud on his 1909 trip to the US
-Broke with Freud in 1914 and spent the next seven years in virtual isolation
spent this time immersed in literature
-Emerged from this period with a new view of personality that built on many of -Freud's ideas but added many new and unique elements
Key Concepts of Jung
-Identification of introversion-extraversion as a fundamental dimension of human personality
--because of his own differences from other kids, he researched this
--viewed himself as an extreme introvert
--introvert- turned inward (literally)
-Archetypes: primordial images found in all cultures at all times
-- The self- (conscious)
-- The shadow: the dark side of the self (unconscious)
-- The anima: the feminine aspect of the male
-- The animus: the masculine aspect of the female
The collective unconscious
- symbols (archetypes) that have the same meaning in all cultures of all times, he discovered through literature
-- complemented the personal unconscious
-- represents the collective experience of the human species
-His Danish father abandoned the family before he was born.
-His mother married Dr. Theodor Homberger, whom he believed to be his real father.
-Never knew his biological father and grew up believing he was Jewish because Dr Homberger was Jewish, which created his identity problems. He had identity problems that led him to resist becoming a physician and wander about Europe instead.
-He met Anna Freud and her colleagues, acquired a Montessori teaching credential, and learned about the psychoanalytic approach.
-He fled the Nazis in 1933 and moved to the US, where he published on ego psychology and proposed a psycho-social stage theory of personality development.
Key Concepts introduced by Erikson
Psychosocial Stage Model of Personality Development
-emphasized the important functions of the ego
--Acts as the mediator between the id, the superego, and the demands of external reality
--Works to establish and maintain a sense of identity
----Stable sense of identity (successful outcome)
----Identity crisis (unsuccessful outcome)
--Works to establish and maintain mastery over the environment
Psychosocial Stage Model of personality development
-Viewed the conflicts at each stage as primarily psychosocial conflicts, rather than psychosexual conflicts
-Added stages that extended throughout the entire lifespan, from infancy through old age
8 stages of Erickson's psyshosocial theory
Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs Doubt
Initiative vs Guilt
Industry vs Inferiority
Identity vs Role Confusion
Intimacy vs Isolation
Generativity vs Stagnation
Ego Integrity vs Despair
Trust vs Mistrust
develop trust or mistrust depending how much nurturing they receive
fixation occurs if transition is not smooth to next phase
Autonomy vs Doubt/Shame
Is the world controlled by me or by someone else?
who decides what I do with my own bodily waste. I get to decide, I have autonomy, but there is shame if I do not use the potty.
Initiative vs Guilt
Develop a sense of initiative by being able to set goals and tackle activities... or not, which is feeling of guilt
"Can I do something that pleases me or is that a bad thig?" If caught and a big deal is made, it creates guilt.
Industry vs Inferiority
grade school teacher expects them to work. Can I be industrious or do I resist? If resist, get called out in front of class which creates inferiority.
Identity vs Role Confusion
Puberty and Adolescence
Who am I? (Erickson spent a lot of time figuring this out so he felt everyone does.) gender, family, religion, etc- is accepted (foreclosed identity) but not all do.
Intimacy vs Isolation
Can you form a strong romantic partnership with another person?
Generativity vs Stagnation
have achieved a level or income and success to "have it made". Not in your best interest to keep it all- generativity- share with charity, children, colleagues, etc or
stagnate- build a predictable boring life
Ego Integrity vs Despair
look back on whole life and decide if you are pleased or displeased with accomplishments.
First Feminist Psychologist
Younger sister to older brother and was victim of sexism by her father- didn't see any reason to educate a daughter. Her role was to get married and have children.
Some of what she criticized was the same as Erickson, social interactions, but also his sexism.
When she became critical of Freud, caused dissension amongst her colleagues and they voted to expel her from The NY Psychoanalytic Institute.
Had a private practice and wrote several books
Determined to always be first in her class, to go to college, and then to medical school
Earned her medical degree in 1915
Studied to become a psychoanalyst and found much to criticize in Freud's writings
Joined the New York Psychoanalytic Institute in 1934 but split with them in 1941 over differences of opinion
Established the American Institute for Psychoanalysis
Key Concepts of Horney
Neurotic Adaptation Styles
Neurotic Adaptation Styles
What we now call Personality Disorders
* Moving TOWARD others- emphasize helplessness; seek help from others
* Moving AGAINST others-push others around to seek sense of superiority
* Moving AWAY FROM others- tune out the world; require very little interation with the world
Neurotic because they are done all of the time- trapped in a self-defeating personal style
neurotic demands placed on oneself-
People thought they could be happier if they undertook psychotherapy.
People are unhappy because they don't allow themselves to be happy
Countered Freud's concept of penis envy with her own concept of womb envy
Pointed out the more sexist aspects of Freud's theorizing and called for a greater emphasis on social and cultural factors; like, Men have stronger super ego (more moral) according to Freud, but Hornay pointed out that most of the people in jail are men...
reproductively healthy women can produce a baby, but no man can so men envy women for their wombs. Men overcompensate for this by building big buildings and other things like look like a penis.
Two ways to better integrate the real self with the ideal self
Real self removed from ideal self creates unhappines
Real and ideal can be brought together and overlap in 2 ways: move real self over to ideal self (but ideal self doesn't always make sense) OR move ideal self to real self OR move both together to meet in the middle.
Was deeply troubled by the destructiveness of the first Word War he witnessed as a Jew living in an anti-Semitic environment
Sought answers in the psychoanalytic writings of Freud and the economic theory of Marx
Received his PhD in 1922 and studied psychoanalysis in Berlin
Emigrated to the US when the Nazis gained power in Germany
Published his influential book Escape from Freedom in 1941
Taught at several universities in the US
Key Concepts of Fromm
- The rise of modern democracies brought people freedom
- But this freedom, and the responsibility it carried with it, was intimidating and overwhelming
- People therefore looked for ways to escape from freedom and responsibility
**through automaton conformity
- Positive freedom requires spontaneity and results in individuation
Views of Religion held by psychoanalytic theorists
** Sigmund Freud was an atheist who thought that religion was "the opiate of the masses," and viewed it as a type of collective wish fulfillment.
** The son of a minister, Carl Jung struggled with religious issues throughout his life but felt that the universality of the God archetype attested to its importance.- partially agreed with Freud, but conflicted by his father being able to give hope to people in church.
** Erich Fromm drew a strong distinction between authoritarian religions and humanistic religions, and argued that the first type require people to deny their own identity whereas the second type provide opportunities for personal growth.
Strenthgs of neo-Freudian theories
- Elaboration of important concepts that Freud ignored or de-emphasized
- Introduction of many new and useful concepts
- Set the stage for the humanistic approach
-Made the psychoanalytic approach more widely acceptable
Criticisms of neo-Freudian theories
- Sometimes lacking in research support
- Patient samples make it difficult to generalize to all people
- None dealt with so many topics in so much depth as Freud
- As with Freud, the tone and emphases of the neo-Freudians' theories reveal their personal biases