A) Organisms could modify features over their lifetime and these acquired traits could be passed genetically to offspring
For instance, this belief, largely perpetuated by Lamark, was said to act on giraffe's necks. The giraffe's were able to grow longer necks by stretching to get to taller leaves, and through this growth, they were able to pass on the trait of longer necks to their offspring. In reality, the giraffe's with longer necks were simply surviving better due to the ability to get more food, thus they passed on their genes more. However, this theory is not completely discredited because there are certain traits that our own actions can cause to be expressed differently. For instance, skin tone due to melanin is very dependent on how much time a person spends outside in the sun. This is now known as the field of ethogenetics, and while it cannot pass on traits acquired over the lifetime to offspring, we do see variations of traits based on our own actions, thus not completely discrediting Lamark's ideas.
i. The mind is a blank slate and humans have very few innate instincts.
iii. The mind functions as a general-purpose problem solver that enables us to take in many different types of input and produce many variations in behavioral output.
a. i., iii. The SSSM maintains that the mind is a blank slate at birth and experience alone shapes behavior. Evolutionary psychologist, however, argue that this cannot be the case and that our brains are, in many ways, primed to react with certain patterns of behavior. They use the example of language, which every infant is capable of learning easily, whereas infants are not equipped to handle other subjects, such as computer science. Evolutionary psychologists, not the SSSM proponents believe that behavior is a result of the interaction between nature and nurture, and that the SSSM draws a false dichotomy between the two. Statement iii. is a pillar of the SSSM that evolutionary psychologists take issue with because there is no evidence to support this claim; there is no general problem, and humans are equipped to respond with specificity and nuance to a variety of different situations. Statement iv. asserts that the SSSM overemphasizes biology's importance when, in fact, if does the very opposite; evolutionary psychologists argue that it is our biological makeup that allows us to think and behave in the ways that we do and that biology and psychology cannot be divorced from one another.
Q: Order these events of human evolution from earliest to latest: Tools first being used, development of agriculture, transition to bipedalism, evolution of opposable thumbs
A - Tools, agriculture, bipedalism, thumbs
B - Agriculture, thumbs, tools, bipedalism
C - Thumbs, bipedalism, agriculture, tools
D - Thumbs, bipedalism, tools, agriculture
According to Gardner, Gut works _______ and is _______-based, while Head is ______ and ______-based.
a. slowly, language; quickly, emotion
b. quickly, language; slowly, emotion
c. slowly, emotion; quickly, language
d. quickly, emotion; slowly, language
e. None of the above