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Biology 107 Exam 2: Study
Terms in this set (58)
Some bacteria can survive for very long periods of time by forming...
Which of the following structures would NOT be found associated with the cell wall of a gram positive bacterium?
Lipopoplysaccharide (gram negative ONLY)
Which of the following would NOT allow a bacterium to adhere to a human cell?
A bacteria with the name Rhodococcus is most likely what shape in the microscope?
Pilin is the primary protein found in the fimbrae of bacteria. The protein folds into a compact form with beta strands and alpha helices. Hundreds of pilin chains may be found in fimbrae. What is the HIGHEST level of protein structure observed for functional pilin?
Antibiotics target all of the following EXCEPT...
Nuclear Pore Proteins
A bacteriophage, or virus that infects bacteria, is involved in bacterial ________________.
A bacterium picks up an antibiotic resistance gene by absorbing a foreign piece of DNA and integrating it into its chromosome. This is an example of bacterial ________.
Lenski has observed that bacterial populations can adapt to new environments through evolution driven by DNA mutations. Which type of mutation would you least expect to be a driver of gene evolution?
The experiment of Griffith that we studied at the beginning of the semester is an example of bacterial ________________.
Phospholipids and triglycerides both...
have a glycerol backbone
Why are lipids and proteins free to move laterally in a membrane?
There are only weak hydrophobic interactions in the interior of the membrane.
The fluid mosaic model of the membrane proposes that membranes ____________.
consist of protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids
Which of the following is a reasonable explanation for why unsaturated fatty acids help keep a membrane more fluid at lower temperatures?
The double bonds form kinks in the fatty acid tails, preventing adjacent lipids from packing tightly.
Transcription always begins at a....
Nucleic acids dissolve in water. Therefore, RNA and DNA are known as _____________ substances.
Which of the following is a probably TRUE of a channel protein in a plasma membrane?
It exhibits specificity for a particular type of molecule.
Aquaporins are channel proteins that assist the movement of water across a cell membrane. This is an example of which of the following?
The force driving simple diffusion is _______, while the energy source for active transport is _________.
the concentration gradient; ATP
In liquid water, the hydrogen atom of one molecule is bonded to the oxygen of a second molecule by _______.
The phosphate added to a target protein by a protein kinase usually comes from __________.
Transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the protein target
Which of the following statements is true about mesenchymal stem cells?
They need an external signal to differentiate into a muscle cell.
Which of the following is NOT a stage in cell signaling?
Protein phosphatase is an enzyme that _________.
deactivates other protein molecules by removing a phosphate group from them
Transcription is always initiated at a(n) _________________.
The site in the ribosome where unligated tRNA molecules are released is known as the __________.
E Site (Exit Site)
During the recycling of ligand-bound receptors, the first subcellular structure they are found in is called ______________.
A cell is considered to be differentiated if it __________________.
produces proteins specific to a particular cell type
The membrane protein responsible for receptor-mediated endocytosis is called ______.
Proteolysis depends on all of the following steps to occur EXCEPT...
the target protein is exported from the cell.
Which of the following is NOT a stage in the cell cycle that has a checkpoint?
If a cell does not get a signal to pass the G1 checkpoint, what happens?
It enters G0
The amount of ___________ in the cell stays the same throughout the cell cycle.
M-phase cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)
The second gap in the cell cycle (G2) corresponds to ________________.
the phase between DNA replication and the M phase
In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are composed of _____________.
DNA and proteins
The attachment of what molecules is critical for the proper segregation of sister chromatids?
Which of the following cell functions are maintained by cell division?
growth and reproduction
During prophase, how many chromosomes are in each human cell?
During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes?
Which of the following does NOT occur in Telophase during mitosis?
Sister chromatids separate
From the name of the bacteria family Staphlococcus, you would predict that all members would have a _______ shape.
If an antibiotic moves from the outside of a Gram Negative bacterium without a halo into the cytoplasm, what is the correct order of the cell wall features that it crosses?
I. Lipopolysaccharide membrane
III. Plasma Membrane
I - IV - III
The figure above shows how the amount of DNA in a recipient cell changes after it comes in contact with a Hfr cell. What is happening at time point 1?
Entry of Hfr chromosome copy into the recipient cell
A mutation involving the deletion of six consecutive nucleotides from a gene intron region would result in a protein that is:
Exactly identical to the original protein in structure and function.
If an amino acid is dissolved in water, how will the nearest water molecules be oriented around the carboxylic acid group?
The water molecules will prefer to point their hydrogen atoms towards the carboxylic acid.
A bacterium picks up an antibiotic resistance gene through infection by a bacteriophage. This is an example of bacterial ________.
Which of the following about carrier proteins is FALSE?
Carrier protein function requires ATP
The TF has a mutation that blocks its entry into the nucleus. Which of the following would NOT be observed in a stem cell if the self renewal ligand is present?
The expression of the self renewal genes.
Which of the following steps is NOT happening during the transduction stage of signaling?
The self renewal ligand is binding to the receptor dimer.
The dye crystal violet stains the following biological structure...
What was the major finding in the experiments of Linski?
Bacteria can evolve new traits through random mutations.
Cell membranes of animals adapted to life in very cold environments would contain an abundance of which of the following?
Unsaturated fatty acids
Which of the following is most likely to cross a cell membrane without assistance?
What does it mean to say that a signal is transduced?
The physical form of the signal changes from one form to another.
During proteolysis in the cell, _______________ is covalently attached to the protein targeted for degradation.
If a stem cell has a nonsense mutation in the TK1 gene that occurs upstream of its kinase domain what will be the result for self renewal?
There would be no phosphorylation of TK2 by TK1 and therefore no self renewal.
An insertion of one nucleotide into an exon always...
alters the reading frame of the mRNA.
How do phospholipids interact with water molecules?
The polar heads interact with water; the nonpolar tails do not
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