APUSH Unit 1 Review (Ch. 1-5)
Terms in this set (45)
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
people who were given legal charters for colonies
Queen Elizabeth I
This "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History. She supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in England.
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Colony of Virginia
Entire economy depended solely on tobacco (which ruined soil). Virginia House of Burgesses (1619): First example of representative democracy in colonies; controlled finances, militia, etc. Use Headright System, which gave each Virginian 50 acres of land for each person whose passage to America they paid for. Hating tobacco and distrusting the House of Burgesses, King James I later revoked the Virginia Company Charter, making Virginia a royal colony under his jurisdiction.
1607. Virginia company sponsored English colonization in Jamestown, VA. English men didn't want to work/build colony. IT was a swampy area-hard to grow crops. There was disease and disputes with Indians. Once women arrived, tobacco was planted, and the colonists established trade with the Indians the colony survived. This was the first permanent English settlement.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
King James I
(1566-1625) King of England from 1603 to 1625; he granted a charter to the Virginia Company to form a settlement in the New World. This colonial town was named Jamestown in his honor.
1580-1631 An English colonist who came to America in 1608 and helped to create the Jamestown Colony. He made an agreement with the Powhatan Indians. He encouraged settlers to work harder and build better housing. No work = no food Hard work = more food.
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years.
Colony of Maryland
proprietary colony granted to Lord Baltimore, intended to profit but also founded as a haven for Catholics
Colony of North Carolina
Founded in 1653. Very early settlements did not last. Largely dependent upon tobacco cultivation.
Colony of South Carolina
Southern colony founded by the English. Large agricultural economy (rice and indigo), and greatly relied on slave labor for much of its history
1660; when Charles II was restored to the throne of England; lead to greater royal involvement and intensity in colonialism
House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt similar governing bodies.
Also known as George Calvert, this man received a portion of the Virginia colony from King Charles I. This man's charge was to create a colony that would serve as both a haven for Catholics and turn a profit for the Crown. Before he could set forth on his mission, he died, leaving the colony in the hands of his son, who then established the colony of Maryland.
Colony of Georgia
George was founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733. it was created as a buffer between the Spanish in Florida in the Carolinas. It was also known as haven for debtors.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Separatists who journeyed to American colonies for religious freedom, who came over on the Mayflower. Settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
Church of England
(Anglican Church); Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope
A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to heaven by God. This belief in the elect, or "visible saints," figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600's.
(1509-1564) Swiss theologian (born in France); wrote 'Institutes of the Christian Religion' in 1536; believed that men and women are sinful by nature and that people cannot earn salvation - God chooses a few "elect" who he will save.
Colonies in the north whose economy were based on trade and business - MA, CT, RI, & NH.
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset ( now Portsmouth, R.I.)
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Colony of Rhode Island
...(1644) Complete freedom of religion, even for Jews and Catholics. Also Quakers. No oaths required regarding one's religious beliefs. No compulsory attendance at worship. No taxes to support a state church. Provided simple manhood suffrage in the colony from the outset Opposed to special privilege of any sort.
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 14, 1639. The orders describe the government set up by the Connecticut River towns, setting its structure and powers.
It has the features of a written constitution.
Salem Witch Trials
1692-Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
The Dutch settled near the Hudson River. the Dutch also set up the Dutch West India Company to trade beaver furs. Patroon System- New Netherlands political system. A few rich families were given huge tracts of land; They then rented land to at least 50 families. People from all regions and backgrounds were welcome
Founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a s a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
1676 Virginian rebellion of frontiersmen (wretched bachelors) sparked by governor Berkeley's refusal to retaliate for a series of brutal Indian attacks on frontier settlements; killed Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and set fire to Jamestown; plundering and pilfering; crushed by Berkeley with cruelty of hanging over twenty rebels; rebellion ignited resentments of landless former servants and pitted the frontiersmen against the gentry of the plantations; caused gentry to seek out African slaves.
A Governor of Virginia appointed by King Charles I, he was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 (hanged 20 rebellions).
A farmer in the backcountry, his resentment of Berkeley and the unbalanced power of the Virginia government, lead to a rebellion, by him and other backcountry farmers. When Berkeley refused to let Bacon and other farmers fight nearby Indians, he went into Jamestown, with his own militia, burned most of the city, and drove Berkeley out of town.
Colony of Connecticut
... (founded in 1636) May 1636, group of Boston Puritans led by Rev. Thomas Hooker moved into the Connecticut River valley area and founded the town of Hartford.Three valley towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield established.
A 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws
New York conspiracy trials
Supposed plot by slaves and poor whites in the British colony of New York in 1741 to revolt and level New York City with a series of fires.
An economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade.
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
(est. 1636) established by Massachusetts Puritans 8 years after founding of colony to train local boys for the ministry
(1733) A British law that imposed a tax on sugar, molasses, and rum imported from non-British colonies into North American colonies. It was intended to maintain the monopoly of the American sugar market by the West Indies sugarcane growers. It was the least successful of the Navigation Acts, since it was avoided by smuggling.
A series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies. Their goal was to force colonial development into lines favorable to England, and stop direct colonial trade with the Netherlands, France, and other European countries.
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763., French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system.
Colony established mostly in N. America by Spain in 1535, included part of what are today the United States, Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies.
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