So You Want to be an Interpreter?

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Terms in this set (160)
A philosophy of interpreting based on the belief that effected interpretation requires cultural and linguistic meditation in order to accomplish to accomplish speaker goals and maintain dynamic equivalance; based on the recognition of deaf people as members of an oppressed minority; accepts ASL as a language and deaf culture as that which encompases the norms, values, and traditions of this community of people
an approach which stresses ASL as the instructional language for all subjects accept englsih, with an untimate goal of developing compantecy in both english and ASL; based on the recognition of deaf people as members of an oppressed minority; accepts ASL as a language and deaf culture as that which encompases the norms, values, and traditions of this community of people;
COI (Certificate of Interpretation)the professional cerificate awarded by AVLIC to individuals who successfully complete both knowledge and skills assessment in effect so long as the member adheres to the AVLIC COE and maintains annual active membership with fees paid in fullCertified Deaf Interpretera deaf interpreter who has taken and passed the RID certificationC Languagea language one can "manage" to comprehend what is spoken/signed however the individual speaks/signs with a heavy accent, improper gramatical structture and frequent semantic errorsClassifyersa specific set of signs that servs several functions in ASL; some are iconic which (look somewhat like the object they represent) others are arbitrary (there are no obvious reason for that sign or handshape to be used as a classifyers for the noun it represents);Clients/Consumersa term used to refer to those for whom sign language interpreters work; includes both deaf and hearingCloze Skillsthe ability to mentally fill in the blanks when part of an utterance is obscured or when the reciever does not understand a term or phraseCode of Ethicsset of guidelines that require an individual to develop effective decision making skills, a clear sense of their own beliefs and values, undestand how society defines right/wrong, good/bad, and have the ability to apply all of this to spur of the moment, professional interactions;Code SwitchingConscious or Unconscious movement from ASL to English Sign or English Sign to ASL, this often occurs due to the experience of oppression to deaf people in Canada and the USCommunication DynamicsThe way people in a communication interaction react to or engage with one another and to the overall interactionCommunication Facilitation Philosophya set of beliefs regarding deaf individuals ASL, and communication dynamics that influences the way a person views their role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of deaf people as handicapped; ASL as a means of communicating with less educated individuals, sensitivity to environmental factors that influence communicationCommunicationa continuous, transactional process involving 2 or more people who occupy different but overlapping environments; as they seek to share information or ideas, they create a relationship by simultaneously sending and recieveing messages some of which are clearly and overtly delievered, others that carry implied and unstated information; messages are often distorted by physical and psychological noiseConceptually Accuratly Signed English (CASE)manual code for english which combines English gramatical order with ASL signs and some invented initialized signs; choice of signs based on the intended concept or idea of the speaker.Conduit or Machine Philosophya set of beliefs regarding deaf individuals, ASL, and communication dynamics that influences the way a person views their role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn to take care of themselves; Word-For-Sign equivalance between signs and spoken english; and the interpreter as having no responsibility for the interaction or communication dynamics taking placeConference of Interpreter Trainee (CIT)an american orginazation of educators who teach interpretation; membership is internationalConfidentialitythe aggreement that information that takes place in a professional relationship is not to be shared with others outside of the specific setting and relationshipCongenital Deafnessto be born deaf or hard of hearingconsecutive interpretationthe process of interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that informationConsultativewhen this register is used one of the individuals involved in the interchange has "expert" status or enhanced command of the topic at handContact Varietiesa mixture of 2 langauges resulting from prolonged langauges contact between members of different linguistic communities - includes code switching, code mixing, and lexical borrowing; sometimes referred to as Pidgin Signed EnglishCritical Thinking Skillsthe ability to break the whole into its parts to examine in detail to look more deeply into a text and determine its nature by engaging in disciplined reasoning, inferring and deducing in order to extract the message carried "below the words/signs" or "between the lines" as well as the information explicitly statedcultural and linguistic mediationinterpreting in such a way that information has equivilent meaning and impact for individuals with different languages in cultural schema; requires an interpreter to make cultural and linguistic expansions and reductions.Cultural Expansionproviding the contextual information required to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone without the requisite schema or experiential frame; done within the form of the interpretationCultural Reductionreducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information within the information without effecting the meaning intended; done to meet communication and cultural norms of a target languageCultural View of Deaf peopleaccepts deaf people as normal, capable human beings, rather than as disabled, abnormalCulturethat complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired of the society; Set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own language, values, rules of behavior, and traditionsDeafused to denote individuals who, in addition to having a significant amount of hearing loss, function by choice as members of the deaf community, subscribing to the unique cultural norms, values, and traditions of that groupdeaf (deaf view)a label of pride and solidarity for those who have similar experiences, use a shared form of communication and who subscribe to deaf cultural values, norms, and traditionsdeaf (hearing view)refers to the inability to hear as compaired to "normal" hearing, generally seen as a deficit or an impairment; measured by dB (alt. tems - hearing impaired, or mild/moderate/severe hearing loss)deaf interpretera deaf person trained in the art of interpretation, who facilitates communication between a deaf individual who is using non standard ASL, a regional dialect or some other form of visual communication and hearing interpreter.decibels (dB)a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from 0 for the average least perceptive sound to about 130 for the average level where sound enduces pain.Dependence on the "Benefactor"the phenomena of minority group members being dependant upon members of the power group for certain things they percieve they are unable to do for themselves. Discourse style the way a language requires the information be presented in a monologue or dialogue.Dynamic Equivalencean interpreted event, maintaining the "chemistry" between a speaker and their audience that allows a connection to be made and the speakers goals to be accomplishedEmpowerment of the ClientBehaving in a way that supports anothers right to make decisions within interpersonal interaction by vesting control in the hands of consumers then slowly in the hands of the interpreter; avoiding the imposition of ones own opinions, advice, sence of values, or prefered form of communication on others.Empowermenta process of reclaiming one owns power in order to take charge of ones own lifeEnglish Based Signsa generic term used to refer to a variety of signing systems based on english structure, rather than the structure of ASL (includes RM, SEE1, SEE2, CASE)Environmental Factorsphomena in the area surrounding communication that can effect the interaction, including lights, extraneous auditory or visual noise, distance from the interpreter to the speaker, distance from the interpreter to the audienceEquivocal Languagewords, signs, or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way often misleading or confusing to the listenerEthical Behaviormaking choices and acting in a way that respects others; grows out of a strong moral sense, requires the ability to think critically and the courage to choose to do the right thingEthicsbehavioral standards - a set of principles that defines what a judged appropriate or innapropriate, right or wrongEthnocentrican attitude that ones own race or culture is superior to other culturesEuphimestic Languagethe use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt, discriptive words/phrases (ex: powder room)External Noiseactual physical factors that interfere with communication; includes things like flickering lights, squeel of microphone, incessant cougingFatalism or Passivitythe tendency of members of an oppressed group to feel powerless to change or strike back at "the system"; a "go with the flow" and "don't rock the boat" attitudeFear of Freedoma lack of determined action that might lead to true equality and empowerment based on fear and sense of inferiority that of an oppressed group, in spite of their anger about the injustice, descrimination and marginalization they experienceFrankophonea term used in Canada to refer to people who use French based communication, as compaired to english based communicationFrozen Forminformation or texts that are "fixed"- written, video taped, and audio taped. They never change their form. (example: Star Spangled Banner, The Lords Prayer)Hearing Impaireda term used by hearing people in an attempt to politely refer to deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals; viewed by deaf and hard of hearing people as negative and stigmatizingGroup Oppressiona situation in which the dominant group denigrates members of a minority, including yourself - worth, abilities, inteligence, and right to be different and affirmend in the difference; includes a denial of the minority group, language and opportunities to use it and denegration of their cultureHelper Philosophical FrameViews deaf people as handicapped, limited, unable to fully manage their personal and financial needs, believes that deaf people are mentally, emotionally, or experimentally incapable of fully undestanding the world around themHigh Visual Orientation (HVO)a term used to refer to individuals who have no language skills in ASL, LSQ, English, French, or any other language resulting from a developmental disability or because of educational or social deprivation; alt terms minimul language skills or competencyHorizontal Hostilitythe tendency of members of a minority group to turn its anger on other members of its own group; results range from barbed comments and putdowns to verbal or physical attacks or physical violenceInstitutionalized Oppressionattitudes taught overtly or covertly in schools, through the media, and in homes and churches that result in the denigration of a minority groups language, culture, and personhoodInterpretationthe process of changing a message from one language to another conveying alll essential elements of meaning and maintaining dynamic equivilance; a highly sophisticated task involving complex thinking and analytical stratigiesInterpreterone who takes a source language and after working through a complex mental process expressed the language into the target language, maintaining essential elements of meaning and dynamic equivalenceLSQThe rule governed language used by most deaf people in Frankophone areas of CanadaLagtimethe time used by the interpreter to analyze a source language utterance and to make cultural and linguistic adjustments before producing in the target languageLineage of Deaf Children90% of all deaf children are born to hearing families who have no deaf relatives in their extended familyLinear GrammarGramatical structure of a language where lexical items and parts of speech are produced singularly one at a time and a string of lexical unitsLinguistic and Cultural Expansions/ReductionsMinipulating the target language so it contains all of the essential elements of meaning expressed in the source language as to fit the target language of communication normsLinguistic ExpansionStating implied or "understood" information or ideas present in the source language overtly in the interpretation when this informaiton is required of the communication norms of the interpretationLinguistic Fluencybeing able to manipulate a language with the fines of the native or near native user of the language this inlcudes being able to properly shift registers, to discuss a variety of technical and non technical topics, and to "play" with the language (play on words, or play on signs)Linguistic Reductionreducing the volume and detail of information present in the source language without effecting the meaning intended; done due to the linguistic norms and expectations in the target languageLinguisticsThe study of languages and the structures of how they are composedMachine Philosophya set of beliefs regarding deaf individuals, ASL, and communication dynamics which influences a way a person views, her/his role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn how to take care of themselves word for sign equivalence for sign equivalence between signs and spoken englishManually Coded Englisha variety of english based signing systems to represent the aural-oral language of English (RM, SEE1, SEE2. CASE)Mentoring (Twinning)an arrangement in which a more experienced interpreter "adopts" a less experienced interpreter showing her the ropes, introducing her the deaf community, and serving as a sounding board to review and evaluate the less-experienced interpreters professional behavior, decision-making, and quality of interpretation or transiliterationMinimul Language Competencyterm used to refer to individuals who have no language skils in ASL, LSQ, English, French or any other language due to brain damageModalitythe channel through which a message is expressed, specifically spoken (aural-oral) or signed (visual-gestural)Multi-Leveled Grammarthe ability of a language to produce more than one lexical item or more than one part of speech simultaneouslyMath of the Misguided Childa belief of a majority group that individuals in a minority grop and people don't know whats best for them and they require "guidance" by the majority groupMythstraditional stories that explore the world view of a group of people or that explains the practice or beliefNeed for Approval from Marginalized Group Membersthe expectaitions and need for some expression of appreciation and gratitude of the majority group and the minority group failure to achieve approval results from victimizationNegative View of the Oppressed GroupStigmitazation of members of the minority group because they do not measure up to the standadrds est by the majority; the group is marginalized systematically shut out of opportunities of equalityNon-Manual Signalsa set of facial-physical markers (behaviors that accompany signs in ASL) conveys linguistic gramatical and effective information; signs absent the non-manual signals result in non-linguistic and non sensical utterancesOppressionunjust or excessive power or position; results in disenfranchisement of othersOral Deaf PeopleDeaf people who do not used ASL, prefer to use speech, and speech-reading primary form of communicationOral TransliterationMaking spoken English visible for an Oral deaf individual requires repeting in what is being said without using speech selecting words that are most easily speech-readible and sometimes using a gesture for clarificationOral Transliteratorone who listens to a spoken englsih message then who clearly changes into readible form for a deaf consumerr who uses speech and speech reading as form of communicationParalinguistic ElementsElememnts that accompany and add meaning to the expression including gestures, tone of voice/size of signs, visual/vocal affect, etc.Passive Voicea type of sentence construction in which the actor performing the action indicating by the verb isnt overtly identifiedPaternalism (possessive consciousness)a caretaker attitude by members of the dominant group toward minority group based on the assumption that they are unable to make appropriate decisions and need to be taken care ofPathological View of Deaf Peoplea view of deaf people as disabled, imperfect human beings stereotypical labels historically assigned to deaf people in literaturePhysiological NoiseBiological factors that interfere with communication; (ex: illness, exhaustion, or hunger)Pidgin Sign Languageolder (an incorrect) term used to refer to contact varieties or blended forms of English often used when deaf and hearing people attempt to communicatePragmatic Use of Language (Pragmatic Rules)the way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of the utterance within the contextProcess Models of Interpreationattempts to graphicaly demonstrate complex mental activities, decisions made, and the factors influencing an interpretation; some models are based on formal research and others have been developed by the long-time practitioners based on reflection and introspection of the proProcessing Timethe time used by the interpreter to analyze the source language utternace and to make cultural and linguistic adjustments before producing an equivalent message in the target languageProfessional Competencehaving the knowledge and skills base, as well as ethical judgement of the task of the professional in a given fieldProfessional Distancea social, psychological, and physical boundry established ensured that people function within appropriate professional roles (protects professional and client)Professionalpeople working in a field in which they are expected to hold the interests of their clients paramount of all decisions made; have special knowledge, licensure, or certification, adhere to COE; expected to be trustworthy, be prepared, able to deal with information in a descrete manner and avoid inappropriate emotional involvement of the clientProsidythe rhythm of a language including stress, intonation, pausing, and phrasing that help listeners determine meanign and predict what the speaker will say nextPsychological NoiseRealities that exist in the heads of all participants in the communication environment and distracts from or interferes with the communication (internal stress, personal judgements, and random thoughts)Real World Classifyersclassifyers that take on life-size proportions and look a bit like a reduced form of mime when being producedReciprocal Signalscertain eye behaviors, head nods, verbal utterances (ex: right, uh huh) to indicate that one is intending and comprehending (or not undestanding) messages being recievedReprocity of Perspecivesan assumption that the experiences and values of antoher group are identical to your own. Thus, if you traded places members of the 2nd group would come to view the world like yourself and view the world as comcomitment valuesRegisteridentifyable variations within all languages which mark the formality or informality of an interaction;Registry for the Interpreters for the Deaf (RID)the national professional interpreter association and interpreter certifying body of the USARepetive Strain Injury (RSI)a condition resulting from using a particular set of tendons in ones workResidual Hearingthe ability to hear some degree of some frequencies in spite to partial hearing lossResitant to Attempts of Liberationa fear on the part of members on the power group toward any attempts of the oppressed group of equalityRochester Methoda manual code of English; every word is fingerspelled except the word "and"Schemaan orginizational or conceptual partern in the mind; the contextual fram or "script" that helps us interpret what is happening; learned infomally from our social and cultural interactionsSeeing Essential English (SEE1)a manual code for English wherein each syllable is given a separate manual movementSemanticsthe way meaning is created by the use and interrelationship of words, phrases and sentences; precise shades of meaning applied to words/signs in contextSight Translationchanging a message from the frozen form of one language (writen or taped) into another signed or spoken language done on first sight, without the time normally required to preparte a formal translation; Deaf individuals hold a fairly common expectation that initerpreters will be able to provide this service to them.Sign Supported Speech (SSS)a broad term used to refer to a variety of English0based signing systems; composed of invented hand movements that attempt to represent English in a manual/visual form, relying entirely upon the lexicon and syntax of English, and usually accompanied with speech or lip movementsSigned English (SE)combines English gramatical order with ASL signs as well as some invented initialized signsSigning Exact English (SEE2)a manual code for English which is a combination of SEE1, invented initialized signs, and some ASL signs; the "proper" sign for various words is determined by the "2 out of 3 rule"Sign-to-Voicethe part of the interpretation process in which the source language message is signed (ASL, LSQ, or a manual form of English) and the output is spoken Englishm French or another auditory languageSimultaneous Communicationspeaking and signing at the same time (sometimes referred to as sim-com); research has demonstrated a variety of problems that result from the sumultaneous communication of hearing people including the omission of signs, semantic errors, unclear prodection of signs, and confused mouth markersSimultaneous Interpretation or Simultaneous Transliterationthe process of interpreting/transiliterating into the targer language/code at the same time that the cource language message is being deliveredSize and Shape Specifiersa specific subset of classifiers that function to describe various nouns; functions like English adjectivesSource Langauge (SL)the language in which an original message is conveyed and upon which interpretation is basedSpeaker Goalthe motivating purpose behind communication; includes a variety of things such as teaching, inspiring, conseling or guiding, teasing, scolding, threatening, clarifying, explaining, requesting, selling, and convincing; the outcome anticipated or desired effect of saying or signing something to anotherSpeech Readinga skill employed by some deaf and HOH individuals to comprehend spoken communication; involves a combination or deciphering lip, cheek, and throat movements, clarifying gestures and use of closure skills to determine meaningStrerotypea standardized mental picture that is helf in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, effective attitude, or uncritical judgementsSupport Groupa small groupo of professional peers committed to confidentiality, growth, honesty, and integrityTarget Languagethe language into which a message is interpreted with equivalent meaningTest of Interpretation (TOI)the test of interpreting skills required for Certification in Canada, administered by AVLICTotal Communicationoriginal conception defined as using any means necesary to successfully communicate with a deaf child; adopted and redefined by the education system to mean speaking and signing at the same timeTranslationchanging a message from the frozen form of one language into the frozen form of another language; this is an emergine field for Deaf individualsTranslatorsindividuals who perform the work of translationTransliterationas used in the field of sign language inrepretation, is the result of taking a source language message, refers to conveying information between a spoken and signed form of EnglishVisual-Gestural Languagesbased ona structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication base is the movement of the face and body rather than sound; sign languages throught the world fall into this catergoryVoice to Signthe part of the interpretation process in which the source language message is spoken and the output is signed ASL, LSQ or a manual form of EnglishWork Settingslocation where interpretation takes place and the number of clients being served; includes one-on-one, small groups, and large groups in such places as education, legal, medical, etc.Written Test of Knowledgethe test of knowledge required as the first step toward certification in Canada, administered by AVLICAbstract Classifiersclassifiers that are smallerl than life size, the shape and movement of which does not necessarily have iconic featuresAbstract Languagegeneric and lacking in specificityAccessibilitymodification to building design, program delivery, or forms of communciation which will allow Deaf and sicabled individuals to gain access to services provided by an institution or agencyAdventitous Deafnessto become deaf at some point after birthAffectrefers to emotions or feelingsA Languageones first language, usually the language your parents speak although this is not always the case, also known as mother tongue or native languageAmbivalencehaving bother negative and positive feelings about somethingl common reaction of members of the oppressed group who have both positive and negative feelings about themselves and the minority group they are affiliated withAmerican Sign Languagea visual-gestural language incorporating facial grammatical markers, physical affect markers, spatial linguistic information and fingerspelling, as well as signs made with the handsDeaf President Now (DPN)protest that took place at Gallaudet that closed down the campus and staged marches on the US 1988Vicarious Traumatrauma that results from observing another person's traumatic experienceAdvocateone who speaks out on issues on behalf of othersAllyone who supports Deaf individuals in their own struggle for liberationOne-on-Onesetting where you typically have one deaf and one hearing client who are using language in a give-and-take manner (ex: doctors office)Small GroupsThis setting is where you may have 3-20 people. (ex: group counseling, staff meeting, small classroom, or seminar)Large Groups or Platformusually more than 40-50 people in this setting. the speaker is often required to stand on the platform to be seen and heardFunctional Elementsan element found in the construction of English includes such things as articles (a, the, an) prepositions (on, for, with, to) and conjunctions (and, but, however)Content Elementsan element found in the construction of English are made up of nouns, and verbsCohort Groupsa group of people who, because they were born within a few eyears of each other, experience many of the same historical and social conditions; people born in the same era are exposed to similar ideas, prevailing assumptions, critical public events, technologies, and popular trendsCommunication Competencesituational and depends on cultures, personal history, and relationships of the individuals presentContextual Environmentcommunication takes place in this setting. its made up of the physical location and the status of each participantRole of Culturefor groups to seek out eachother for social interaction, emotional support, and physical safety."Crab Theory"if a deaf person has some type of success, members of the deaf commnnity them in joy and celebration of the success for a period of time. However, then that individual has recieved an adequate amount of attention (it is hard to explain how the group members know when there has been enough), a group begging to change the conversation or to ignore the "star" if the acheiever insists on holding the spotlight group members will begin to make barbed comments and cutting remarks until the individial resumes their place as one of the groupResidential Schoolsevery physical need to be provided - food shelter books admission to special events, etc. There is a desire to be independant; there is often a fear of not being able to make it on ones own in the absence of this support. There is a belief that a deaf person cannot succeed on their own