Terms in this set (31)
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the "primitive" brain (responsible for all of the things that keep us alive-Automatic functions) It is inside the brain for protection!!!
Parts of the Brainstem
Medulla, Reticular Formation, Thalamus
base of the brainstem, most basic & vital, controls heartbeat and respiration (breathing) lesion=death
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal (consciousness)--tested on cats with electrodes
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem, it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Synesthesia: blended senses (hearing and visual)
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem, helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres (associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food)
two almond shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion and memory (mainly emotion- primal that deal with who we are) Emotions can create a vivid memories, but some cause memory loss (trauma & anxiety)
Linked to long and short term MEMORY and emotion (if destroyed, you can't create new memories)
neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus
maintains homeostasis=balance (directs several maintenance activities: eating, drinking, body temp.)
If destroyed people will eat without getting full (eat to death) or someone will always feel full (starve to death)
Helps govern the endocrine (hormones) system via the pituitary gland
growth (hormone secreted at night) and development, metabolism, tissue function, etc
is linked to emotion and mood
the intricate fabric of interconnected neurons that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center (white matter- inside & transmits info.) (grey matter- thin layer)
the "star" of the brain - involved in speaking and muscle movements, making plans and judgments, reasoning, impulse control
include the sensory cortex - sensory integration
auditory perception, categorization, essential for social interaction
include the visual areas, which rescue visual information from the opposite visual field
area at the rear of the frontal lobes
controls voluntary movements
output (left hemisphere section controls the body's right side)
area at the front of the parietal lobe (registers and processes body sensations)
input- left hemisphere receives input from the body's right side)
More intelligent animals have increased "uncommitted" or association areas of the cortex
Specialization and Integration
The brain uses many parts at once
i.e. Language functioning when reading and speaking
function only occurs on one side of the brain (language is a left hemispheric function)
an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech via the motor cortex (doctor worked with a stroke patient--strokes caused lesions)
difficulty initiating and executing voluntary movement patterns necessary to produce speech when there is no paralysis or weakness of speech muscles.
Producing the desired speech sound.
Using the correct rhythm and rate of speaking.
usually caused by left hemisphere damage
an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression (results in receptive aphasia)
impairment in the ability to use or comprehend words
Finding the word to express a thought
Understanding grammatical sentences.
Reading or writing words or sentences.
usually caused by left hemisphere damage
the brain's capacity for modification
brain reorganization following damage (especially in children)
in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
Large band of neural fibers
Connects the two hemispheres
Carries messages back and forth
The Limbic System includes
hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus
Located just above the medulla and toward the front. Connects the hindbrain with the midbrain and forebrain. Involved in control of facial expressions.