89 terms

Unit 2- Weather and Climate

This is a copy of the Learning Targets Mrs. Bonnin handed out. If i did not know the answer let me know! If you have a password, PLEASE edit yourself!

Terms in this set (...)

The earth spinning
Rotation of the Earth around the sun
Summer Solstice
When the sun shines directly overhead at noon- North
Winter Solstice
When the sun shines directly overhead at noon- South
Vernal Equinox
Marks the beginning of Spring; Night all over the world is the same
Autumnal Equinox
Marks beginning of Autumn; Night all over the world is the same
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees North of the Equator
Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 Degrees South of the Equator
Arctic Circle
66.5 degrees North
Antarctic Circle
66.5 degrees South
An imaginary circle around the middle of the earth, halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole, 0 degrees latt. 0 degrees long.
I can attribute occurrences of weather phenomena and climate to annual changes in Earth-Sun relationships
Y/N (weather phenomena)
Can change on a daily basis; the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
Long term precipitation and temperature
Low Latitudes- IDK if this has right answer
is an area between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator.
Middle Latitudes- IDK if this has right answer
areas lying between 35 and 55 (or more broadly, between 30 and 60) degrees north or south of the equator.
High Latitudes- IDK if this has right answer
are located between 60° and 90° latitude, in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Elevation above sea level
Pressure Systems
a region of the Earth's atmosphere where air pressure is unusually high or low
High Pressure Zones
Air descends in high pressure areas. Usually associated with good weather.
Low Pressure Zones
Air rises here; as it rises it cools, and often condenses into clouds and precipitation
Prevailing winds
wind from the direction that is predominant at a particular place or season.
Winds coming from West to East
Winds coming from East to West
Northeasterly Trade Winds
the prevailing pattern of easterly winds found in the tropics near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere. The trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans that make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, and India, respectively. Trade winds are always in low pressure areas. Also, horse latitudes can be formed and many high pressure areas can be formed there.
Southeasterly Trade Winds
the prevailing pattern of easterly winds found in the tropics near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere. The trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans that make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, and India, respectively. Trade winds are always in low pressure areas. Also, horse latitudes can be formed and many high pressure areas can be formed there.
The movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat
Types of Hot Climate
I can identify and explain factors that affect distribution of weather and climate patterns
Y/N (weather and climate patterns)
Latitude, Altitude, Prevailing Winds, Distance from Ocean, Ocean Currents, Great Mountain Barriers
A storm with a violent wind, in particular tropical cyclones in the Caribbean
A mobil, destructive vortex of violently rotating winds; a funnel shaped cloud and advancing beneath a large storm system
Tornado Alley
An area of the Great Planes where Tornados hit often. Kansas and Oklahoma, often the states around it as well.
A sudden, violent shaking of the ground, the result of plate movement (crust) and/or volcanic action
An instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes such as the force and duration.
The point on the Earth's surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake
A long, high sea wave caused by earthquakes, landslides, or other disturbances
A mountain or hill with a crater or vent; a weak spot in the crust where magma comes to the surface.
Global Warming Debate
Global Warming Controversy; a variety of disputes
Greenhouse Effect
The trapping of the suns warmth in a planets lower atmosphere due to greater transparency of the atmosphere
A self regulating association of living plants and animals along with their physical environment
A large ecosystem usually names after the pre-dominant vegetation in the region
characterized by the type of trees they support: broadleaf or needleleaf
Leaves fall in winter, found in the middle latitudes
Evergreen, pines; in the upper latitudes; Russia calls it Jaiga; ecosystem
Has tremendous diversity; equatorial regions, ecosystem
Tropical Savannah; low latitudes ; climate tropical wet and dry; biome
A grassy plain in tropical and subtropical regions with few trees; biome
Eurasia; ecosystem
Large open area of grassland
South Africa
South America
Found at around 15 degrees N- 30 degrees S, in rain shadows, driest biomes
Short growing season, permafrost exists here
Ground that is permanently frozen
I can explain the influence of climate on the distribution of biomes in different regions
Y/N (Biomes in different regions)
Distance From Oceans
Distance From Oceans? Help...
The tendency of land to experience more thermal temperatures than water; the effect of distance from the moderating influence of the sea on climate
Ocean Currents
The steady flow of surface ocean water in a prevailing direction
Great Mountain Barriers
Highlands, mountains, rugged terrain that stops migration and/or trade between cultures
Orographic effect
Associated with mountain areas- mountains block the passage of air and causes it to rise. Storms drop more rain on windward side and create a shadow on the leeward side.
Facing toward the direction from which the wind is blowing
on or toward the side sheltered from the wind or toward which the wind is blowing; downwind.
Rain shadow
a region having little rainfall because it is sheltered from prevailing rain-bearing winds by a range of hills.
Convectional Precipitation
the transfer of heat through a fluid; typical in hot climates- occurs morning sunshine, heats warm moist air (clouds form after noon and rain falls)
Frontal Precipitation
Rain, sleet, or snow that is produced when warm, moist air is forced to rise over a colder, denser air mass.
Coriolis Effect
an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation. On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems.
I can describe the characteristics of and explain the distribution of climate regions
Y/N (distribution of climate regions)
Tropical wet and dry
As a result, the climate experiences a distinct seasonality to its precipitation like that of the tropical monsoon climate. Also known as the "Savanna" climate, it supports a ground cover of drought resistant grasses with scattered trees, but not enough rainfall to make agriculture a viable, life sustaining activity.
Tropical Wet
Hot and rainy all year
Hot, dry summers and cool, dry winters
A type of biome characterized by low moisture levels and infrequent and unpredictable precipitation. Daily and seasonal temperatures fluctuate widely
the largest inland sea
Marine West
This climate is found on the west coast of midlatitude continents and is very humid through most of the year. Its geographic location places it in the path of westerly winds from the ocean that bring cloudy skies, much precipitation, and mild temperatures.
Humid Subtropical
A wet and warm climate found on the edges of the tropics.
Humid continental
a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters.
Precipitation is relatively well distributed year-round in many areas with this climate, while others may see a marked reduction in wintry precipitation and even a wintertime drought.
A climate zone that lies north of the humid continental climates.
A biome at the northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes, characterized by dwarf woody shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens.
Ice Cap
A dome shaped accumulation of glacier ice and perennial now that completely covers a mountainous area or island, so that no peaks or Nunateks poke through.
An area of high or mountainous land
combonation of a bar and line graph giving info about long term weather patterns. (know how to use these)
Climax Matrix
Climax Matrix is a piece of paper with many boxes on it. You will find it on Mrs. Bonnin's website. MAKE SURE YOU STUDY THIS WELL. (For freshmen WHS students in Pre-AP)
El Niño
an irregularly occurring and complex series of climatic changes affecting the equatorial Pacific region and beyond every few years, characterized by the appearance of unusually warm, nutrient-poor water off northern Peru and Ecuador, typically in late December.
La Niña
a cooling of the water in the equatorial Pacific that occurs at irregular intervals and is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns complementary to those of El Niño, but less extensive and damaging in their effects.
An overflowing of a large amount of water beyond its normal confines, esp. over what is normally dry land
Flood Plain
Flat land near the edges of rivers formed by mud and silt deposited by floods
I can describe the interaction between humans and the physical environment and analyze consequences of extreme weather and other natural disasters
Y/N (humans and physical environment)
Horse Latitudes
are regions of high pressue and gentle winds at about 30 degrees north and south latitude
a belt of calms and light winds between the northern and southern trade winds of the Atlantic and Pacific