Intelligence (Chapter 9)
Terms in this set (36)
-ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
- socially constructed
-psychologists believe that intelligence is a concept, not a thing
-When we view intelligence as a trait we make an error called reification
viewing abstract immaterial concepts a concrete thing
factor analysis (FA)
statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related test
-used FA to discover his (g) or general intelligence
special abilities that accompany the g factor (spearman)
reasoning/problem solving abilities
by applying fluid IQ
Examples: working on cars, step by step process
analyzed his subjects on 7 clusters of primary mental abilities
1. word fluency
2. Verbal comprehension
3. spatial ability
5. numerical ability
6. inductive reasoning
supported Thurston idea but noted that brain damage diminishes 1 type of ability but not the another. Studied savants
Gardners Multiple intelligence
Stenberg 3 intelligences
-first called social intelligence
-ability to perceive, express, understand and regulate emotions
Components of EQ
ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. correlates somewhat with intelligence
2. imaginative thinking
3. adventurous personality
4. intrinsic motivation
5. creative environment
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (Mental Age)
-came up with mental age.
-With someones mental age they can predict future performance.
-They tested children unwrapping candy abilities, repeating from memory and identifying regular objects
-If mental age=regular age then they were normal
-adapted Binet test for American kids called standford-binet.
-William stern came up with IQ (mental age/actual age times 100)
Doesn't really work with adults
World War 1
Came up with an IQ test for the army
Army Alpha- had to be able to read English language
Beta- couldn't read English they do this test. Used this test to determine their position in the army.
Adult/Children IQ Testing/Scales
Test consists of 11 subtests and cues us into strength by using Factor Analysis
Adult Test (Wechsler)
Verbal, performance and full scale
Child Test (Wechsler)
Verbal, perceptual reasoning, working memory and processing speed.
Aptitude Vs. Achievement
Aptitude- predicts persons future performance (SAT)
Achievement- to assess what you have learned (AP tests)
Principles of test construction
Standardization (Test construction)
Can be given to the masses, must be pre-tested to a sample of people and form a normal distribution/bell curve.
Reliability (Test construction)
Yields consistent results establish different procedure.
Using different tests forms
dividing test into 2 equal halves, assessing how consistent the scores are
using same test on 2 occasions to measure consistency
Validity (Test construction)
what the test is suppose to measure or predict
test measures a particular behavior or trait
function of the test in predicting a behavior or trait
IQ test performance has been rising since 1970
a description of the frequency at which particular scores occur, allowing scores to be compared statistically
a way of studying intelligence that emphasizes analysis of the products of intelligence especially scores on the intelligence test
information processing approach
an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on mental operations, such as attention and memory, that underlie intelligent behavior
triarchic theory of intelligence
robert Sternberg theory that describes intelligence as having analytic, creative and practical dimensions
ability to think along many alternative paths to generate many different solutions to a problem
the knowledge of what strategies to apply, when to apply them, and how to use them in new situations
ability to apply logic and knowledge to narrow down the number of possible solutions to a problem or perform some other complex cognitive task.
-Plays an important role in differences among people on IQ tests.
-IQ scores of sibling who share no common environment are positively correlated. There is a greater correlation between scores of identical twins then between those of nonidentical twins
IQ scores have risen among children who are adopted into homes that offer a stimulating, enriching environment. Correlations between scores IQs of identical twins reared together are higher than those reared apart.
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