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Organisms which use energy from inorganic substances to make organic compounds are...
Organisms which need organic chemicals as a source of both energy and carbon are...
A medium containing an inhibitor (to keep out unwanted growth) would be considered a --- medium.
Most bacterial division occurs as (describe action)...
...the membrane furrows and the cell wall grows inward.
Which method involves the most time lapse, but is the most common way to measure bacterial numbers?
Standard Plate Count
An indirect method of measuring bacterial growth which can be used after short growth periods is the...
NAD, NADP and FAD are important to the metabolic pathways because they are...
Hydrogen Transport Molecules
The catabolism of glucose first involves a pathway resulting in the production of the compound...
A widely used pathway involving five-carbon intermediates in the catabolism of carbohydrates is the --- pathway.
The reaction in which Fructose 1, 6-biphosphate is converted to two molecules of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is an example of...
In the transformation of Isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide is removed. This process is called...
The transfer of electrons and hydrogens to the molecule NAD to form NADH2 in the same step is referred to as...
In the Kreb's Cycle, fumarate is converted to malate by the addition of water. This reaction is called...
Citrate is converted to Cis-aconitate by the removal of water. This process is called...
During the initial step of the Kreb's cycle, an acetyl group is added to oxaloaccetate (C2 to C4) to form citric acid (C6). This reaction is a...
Which of the following is usually not anaerobic? Alcohol production, Electron Transport, Glycolysis, Lactic Acid Production, or All.
In the synthesis of biomolecules, which of the following is not completely amphibolic? Calvin, Electron Transport, Fermentation, Glycolysis, Krebs.
A form of bacterial control which kills all life forms, including endospores and viruses...
One result of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in...
Increased susceptibility to disease
Which of the following would be the most likely method to be used in sterilizing bandages?
List requirements which must be considered for optimal growth of microbes (8).
Nutrients, moisture, oxygen level, pH, temperature, sterility, osmotic pressure, and barometric pressure.
Describe the bacterial growth curve. During which period would you measure generation time?
LAG: Little or no cell division, intense metabolic activity, gearing up for next action.
LOG: High activity and growth/division. During this time, generations are measured.
STATIONARY: Growth=Death rate, decline due to exhaustion of nutrients.
DEATH: Growth rate is less than the death rate.
Compare aerobic respiration and fermentation.
Both start in the cytoplasm with glycolysis and yeild 2 ATP. Then, in respiration, the process moves on to acetyl-coA formation, the Krebs cycle and electron transport. Final ATP is 36. For fermentation, the process ends at glycolysis, ending with only 2 ATP.
List characteristics of an ideal disinfectant (8).
Kills germs (antimicrobial), works at normal temperatures, liquid (soluble), works rapidly, stable, nontoxic to pets and humans, homogeneous (same stuff throughout), noncorroding.
List physical methods of microbial control (6).
Heat (autoclave, moist, dry), Filtration, Low Temperatures (freezing), Dessication (drying out), Radiation, Osmotic Pressure (salting or sugaring).
List four mechanisms by which microbial control may work.
1. Damage cell wall
2. Alter membrane permiability
3. Alter proteins or nucleic acid
4. Inhibit enzyme action
List groups of chemicals used to control microbes (specific examples).
PHENOLS: damages plasma membrane and denatures protein.
ALCOHOLS: Dissolves lipids, dehydrates, and denatures proteins.
HALOGEN (Iodine): Combines with proteins and oxidizes.
HEAVY METALS (Silver, Copper, Zinc): Denatures -SH bond and high affinity for all proteins.
Utilitarian clothing. Hair tied back. Clear and cleaned workspaces. No eating, drinking or smoking. No objects in mouth. Microscopes should not be plugged in at the same time as the burners. Culture spills should be mopped up immediately. Infectious or used materials should be disposed of properly. Do not move through lab with loop or pipette containing microbes. Label all materials with name, date, specimen and medium used.
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