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71 terms

Psychology 210

Psychology 210 Mrs. Harris Liberty University
STUDY
PLAY
Ageism
Refers to prejudice against people because of their age. Like racism and sexism, it works to prevent elderly from being as happy and productive as they could be.
Gerontology
The study of old age. This is one of the fastest growing special feilds in the social sciences.
Geriatrics
The medical specialty devoted to aging.
Dependency Ratio
The ratio of self- sufficient, productive adults to dependents- children and the elderly
Young- Old
Healthy, vigorous, financially secure older adults ( generally, those over 75) who are well intergrated into the lives of their families and their communities.
Old- Old
Older adults (generally over age 75) who suffer from physical, mental, or social deficits.
Oldest- Old
Elderly adults (generally over the age of 85) who are dependent on others for almost everything, requiring supportive services such as nursing homes and hospital stays.
Primary Aging
The universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to living creatures as they grow older.
Secondary Aging
The specific physical illnesses or conditions that are more common in agingbut are caused by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person.
Cataracts
A common eye disease among the elderly involving a thickening of the lens; it can cause distorted vision if left untreated.
Glaucoma
A disease of the eye that can destroy vision if left untreated. It involves hardening of the eyeball due to fluid buildup within the eye.
Senile Macular Degeneration
A disease of the eye involving deterioration of the retina.
Elderspeak
A way of speaking to older adults that resembles baby talk, with simple and short sentences, exaggerated emphasis, a slower rate, higher pitch and repetition.
Compression of Morbidity
A limiting of the time a person spends ill or infirm, accomplished by postponing illness and , once morbidity occurs, reducing the amount of time that remains before death occurs.
Wear and Tear Theory
A theory of aging that states that the human body wears out because of the passage of time and exposure to environmental stressors.
Maxium Life Span
The oldest age to which members can live, under ideal circumstances. For humans that age is approximately 120 years.
Average Life Expectancy
The number of years the average newborn of a particular population group is likely to live. In humans, this age has tended to increase over time, primarily because fewer children die in infancy.
Oxygen Free Radicals
Atoms that as a result of metabolic processes, have an unpaired electron. They produce errors in cell maintenance and repair that, over time, may cause cancer, diabetes and arteriosclerosis.
Antioxidants
Compounds that nullify the effects of oxygen free radicals by forming a bond with their unattached oxygen electron.
Hayflick Limit
The # of times a human cell is capable of dividing into two new cells. The limit for most human cells is approximately 50 divisions, suggesting that the life span is limited by our genetic program.
Genetic Clock
According to one theory of aging, a regulatory mechanism in the DNA of cells regulates the aging process.
B Cells
Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that creates antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
T Cells
Cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.
True
T or F: Most older adults are happy, quite healthy and active.
10, 5
Only ___ percent of the elderly are dependent, and only ___ percent are in nursing homes or hospitals.
90
___ percent of older people need glasses, and meny have cataracts, glaucoma or senile macular degeneration.
Organ
Primary aging reduces ____ reserve in the major body systems.
False
T or F: Cell reproduction increases and gets better.
100
More and more people are reaching the age of ___
Self Theories
Theories of late adulthood that emphasize the core self, or the search to maintain one's integrity and identity.
Integrity vs. Despair
The final stage of Erikson's developmental sequence, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique experience with their vision of community.
Stratification Theories
Theories emphasizing that social forces, particularly those related to a person's social stratum or social category, limit individual choices and affect the ability to funciton, In the late adulthood, past stratification continues to limit life in various ways.
Disengagement Theory
The view that aging makes a person's social sphere increasingly narrow, resulting in role relinquishment, withdrawal, and passivity.
Activity Theory
The view that elderly people need to remain active in a variety of social spheres with relatives, friends, and community groups and become withdrawn only unwillingly, as a result of ageism.
Dynamic Theories
Theories that emphasize change and readjustment rather than wither the ongoing self or the legacy of stratification. Each person's life is seen as an active, ever changing, largely self propelled process, occuring within specific social contexts that themselves are constantly changing.
Continuity Theory
The theory that each person experiences the changes of late adulthood and behaves toward others in much the same way as earlier periods of life.
Elderhostel
A program in which people aged 55 and older live on college campuses and take special classes, usually during college vacation periods.
Social Convoy
Collectively, the family members, friends, acquaintances, and even strangers who move through life with an individual.
Frail Elderly
People over age 65 who are physically infirm, very ill, or cognitively impaired.
Activities of Daily Life
Actions that are important to independent living, typically comprising five task: eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, and transferring from a bed to a chair.
Instrumental activities of Daily Life
Actions that are important to independent living and that require some intellectual competence and forethought. These are even more critical to self sufficiency than ADLs.
Respite Care
An arrangement in which a professional caregiver takes over to give the family caregiver of a frail elderly person a break for a few hours each day or for an occasional weekend.
Genetic Personality Traits
It may continue to play a major role in the way late adulthood plays itself out.
Family and Religious Connections
Many older members of minority groups function very well, primarily because of strong___ and ___
Education and Volunteer
Many retired people continue their ___ or perform ___ work in their communities.
Politically
The elderly are ____ active and influential, which is one reason for their success in protecting their economic benefits.
Spouse
The ___ is the most important member of a person's social convoy.
Hospice
An institution in which terminally ill patients recieve pallitative care.
Palliative Care
Care designed not to treat an illness, but to relieve the pain and suffering of the patient
Double Effect
A situation in which medication has the intended effect of relieving a dying person's pain and the secondary effect of hastening death.
Passive Euthanasia
A situation in which a seriously ill person is allowed to die, naturally, through the cessation of medical interventions
Active Euthanasia
A situation in which someone takes action to bring about another person's death, with the intention of ending that person's suffering.
Living Will
A document that indicates what medical intervention an individual wants if he or she becomes incapable of expressing those wishes.
Health Care Proxy
a person chosen by another person to make medical decisions if the second person becomes unable to do so.
Physician Assisted Suicide
A form of active euthanasia in which a doctor provides the means for someone to end his or her own life.
Voluntary Euthanasia
A form of active euthanasia in which, at a patient's request, someone else ends his or her life.
Thanatology
The study of death
Bereavement
The sense of loss following a death
Grief
An individual's emotional response to bereavement
Mourning
The ceremonies and behaviors that a religion of culture prescribes for bereaved people.
Control Processes
That part of the information processing system that regulates the analysis and flow of information. Memory and retrieval strategies, selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving are all useful.
Explicit Memory
Memory that is easy to retrieve, usually with words. Most involves consciously learned words, data, and concepts.
Implicit Memory
Unconscious or automatic memory that is usually stored via habits, emotional responses, routine procedures and various sensations.
Terminal Decline
An overall slowdown of cognitive abilities in the days or months before death. Also called Terminal Drop.
Dementia
Irreversible loss of intellectual functioning caused by organic brain damage or disease.
Alzheimer's Disease
The most common form of dementia, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory and personality and marked by plaques of B- amyloid protein and tangles in the brain.
VaD/MID
The form of dementia characterized by sporadic and progressive loss of intellectual functioning.
Subcortical Dementias
Dementias, such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and multiple sclerosis that originate in the subcortex. These diseases begin with impairments in motor ability and produce cognitive impairment in later stages.
Parkinson's Disease
A chronic, progressive disease that is characterized by muscle tremors and rigidity and sometimes dementia, caused by a reduction of dopamine production in the brain.
Life Review
The examination of one's own past life that many elderly people engage in.
Wisdom
A cognitive perspective characterized by a broad, practical, comprehensive approach to life's problems, reflecting timeless truths rather than immediate expediency.