54 terms

Myers' Psychology for AP 2e, Unit 9

Myers Psychology for AP 2e - Unit 09
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developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 14, 462)
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 466)
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 466)
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 466)
teratogens
(literally, "monster makers") agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 467)
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking; in severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 467)
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation; as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 264, 468)
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 471)
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 356, 476)
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 477)
assimilation
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 477)
accommodation
in developmental psychology, adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 477)
sensorimotor stage
the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 478)
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 478)
preoperational stage
the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 479)
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 479)
egocentrism
the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 479)
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 480)
autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 481)
concrete operational stage
the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 483)
formal operational stage
the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 483)
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 488)
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 488)
critical period
an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 489)
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early life critical period (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 489)
temperament
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 490)
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 492)
self-concept
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?" (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 495, 572)
gender
the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 500)
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 501, 789)
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 503)
role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 503, 758)
gender identity
our sense of being male or female (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 504)
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 504)
gender typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 504)
transgender
an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 505)
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 513)
identity
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 519)
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 519)
intimacy
the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 521)
emerging adulthood
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 523)
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women; females have two X chromosomes while males have one; an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 526)
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males; when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 526)
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty (Myers Psychology for AP 2e pp. 408, 526)
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 527)
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 527)
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 527)
menarche
the first menstrual period (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 527)
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
a life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infections (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 529)
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation) (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 531)
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 540)
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 543)
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 543)
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement (Myers Psychology for AP 2e p. 544)
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