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Physical Science Chapter 10
Terms in this set (50)
Any electrical phenomenon relating to essentially stationary electrical charges and the forces they exert
The field exerted electrical charges it may be repulsive or attractive depending on the kind of charges interacting
Like charges repel and unlike charges attract
Laws of charges
The creation of a charged region on a neutral object when it is exposed to an electrical field
A material through which heat and electrical current easily flow
A material that does not easily conduct thermal energy or electricity
An artificial crystalline solid composed of metalloid elements
An early charge storing device consisting of a glass jar line/ coated with lead
A modern charge storage in electrical and electronic circuits; two or more conductive plates separated by insulator
Electrical phenomena and applications that depend on flowing electric charges (current)
The energy change or work that can be done by moving between two points of different voltages
Electrical potential energy
Flow of positive charges through a conductor or electrolytic solution toward more negatively charged region
Electrical current that flows in only one direction
Complete path for an current source, a conductor, an electrical load, and a conductor by which current source
Any device that purposely converts electrical energy to another form of energy in an electrical circuit
A source of potential consisting of one or more voltaic connected in series
The property of all electrical circuit elements that impedes the flow of current to some extent
Electrical law relating to DC circuits the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance (V=1*R)
An electrical circuit with a single current flow path through a connected set of electrical loads
An electrical circuit with multiple current paths so that the supplied current must split up to flow through each load circuit
A location (usually a fault) in where the majority of the current by passes a load to take a low resistance path back to the current's source
What causes electrical charges to attract and repel? How does the strength of this force compare to the gravitational force?
Electrostatic force; stronger than the force of gravity
How many kinds of electrical charges are there? What are they called?
Only two kinds of electrical charges; negative and positive charge
State the law of charges.
Unlike charges retract and Like charges repel
What makes most everyday objects electrically neutral?
They have an equal number of electrons and protons
What produces a negative charge on an object? What condition results in a positive charge?
If an object has more electrons than protons its gonna have a negative charge
As like charges move closer together, their lines of force bend farther away from each other and push together into a smaller space. What does this indicate about the size of the forces between them?
Stronger the lines, the stronger the force
(True or False) Electrical induction can be used to identify an objects unknown charge.
How can you tell that an electrcoscope has an has an electrical charge?
An electroscope has a charge if its metal foil leaves are spread
Can you tell from an electroscope alone kind of charge it has?
It is not possible to know what kind of charge is on an electroscope because it responds the the same way to both negative and positive charges
Describe electrical conductors and insulators and give one example of each.
In electrical conductor, electrons easily move from atom to atom.
What do we call materials that conduct electricity only under special circumstances?
The electrons of an insulator are bound tightly to their atoms
How does a lightning rod work?
If a lightning bolt strikes the structure, it is attracted to the lightning rod and the electricity is conducted harmlessly to the ground.
The Bible teaches that God is in control rain of the lightning. Is this use of a lightning rod attempt to interfere with God's judgement on the disobedient? Why or why not?
No. God is in control of every lightning strike, but the Bible does not state that every lightning strike is an act of divine judgement
What was the device to successfully store electrical charges? How did it work?
The first charge-storage device was the Leyden jar; when a charge is placed on the inner layer, it induces an opposite charge on the outside conductor, which increases the amount
Name two devices that use static electricity to complete a task.
Biogenic electrical shocks, and laser printer
Give an example of static electricity (e.g., a biological one) not mentioned in the text book.
Electromechanical potential is developed in certain muscles mimic the effects of the static charges
Describe how static charge and induction are used to print a document in a standard laser printer.
The print drum's semiconductor surface is uniformly charged to "blank" it before printing
(True or False) Lightning is a rapid electrostatic discharge.
Contrast static electricity and current electricity.
Static electricity applies to relatively stationary electrical charges. Current electricity describes continuously flowing electrons or other charges through a conductor
Compare the two models of how electrons flow through a conductor.
In the diffusion model, higher concentrations of electrons at the source move toward lower regions of electrons, just as gases diffuse into a room. In the electrical potential model, electrons at the source have a higher potential energy and tend to flow downhill toward points of the of lower potential energy
How does conventional current compare to electron current model?
Conventional flow is opposite the direction of electron flow
What is the name for current flows in one direction?
What current are minimum components needed for an electrical circuit to do useful work?
A basic circuit requires a source of electrons, an electrical load, and conductors to connect them
Name three man-made sources of electrons that could produce an electrical current.
Cell batteries, photovoltaic cells, and electrical generators
What recycles cells?
Photovoltaic cells and generators recycle electrons
What is the unit for electrical potential difference?
The unit of electrical potential difference that requires I joule of work to move 1 column of electrical charge between two points
What is the unit of electrical current?
The unit current is the amphere, or amp
What is the unit of electrical resistance?
The ohm is the unit of electrical resistance
(True or False) The unit of electrical power is the kilowatt-hour
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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