25 terms

Chapter 7- Friedland, Chapter 6 - Friedland

the number of people that move into the country
the number of people that move out of the country
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
the number of births per 1,000 individuals per year
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year
Global Population Growth Rate
[CBR - CDR] / 10
(expressed as percentage)
National Population Growth Rate
[(CBR + immigration) - (CDR + emigration)] / 10 (expressed as percentage)
Doubling Time
The number of years it takes the population to double assuming the growth rate is constant. This number does not depend on the size of the population
70 / r
r is a percentage but use whole number (use 2 for 2%)
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
an estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years.
Replacement Level Feritlity
the TFR required to offset the average number of deaths in a population so that it remains stable. Typically the _______ is just over 2 children.
Life Expectancy
the average number of years that an individual in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live
-generally higher in countries with better healthcare, high resource consumption
Family Planning
the regulation of the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control
- when women have access to this birth rates drop
Impacts on TRF
-more education typically = fewer children
Women in the workforce
-women working = fewer children
Family Planning (including contraceptives)
-contraceptives = less children
-less income = more kids to help out
Cultural/Religous values
-large families
Health Care/Mortality Rate
-Better health care=less kids because they survive.
composed of all individuals that belong to the same species and live in a given area at a particular time
population size
the total number of individuals within a defined area at a given time
population density
the number of individuals per unit area (or volume for aquatic organisms) at a given time
sex ratio
the ratio of males to females
age structure
a description of how many individuals fit into particular age categories
limiting resource
a resource that a population cannot live without and which occurs in quantities lower than the population would require to increase in size
a resource that a population cannot live without
density-dependent factors
individual's probability of survival and reproduction in a manner that depends on the size of the population
carrying capacity; k
population growth slowed as population size increased. There was a limit to how many individuals an ecosystem can support
Density-independent factors
have the same effect on an individuals probability of survival and amount of reproduction at any population size
intrinsic growth rate; r
under ideal conditions, with unlimited resources available, every population has a particular maximum potential for growth
logistic growth model
describes a population whose growth is initially exponential, but slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity of the environment
exponential growth model
under ideal conditions, the future size of the population depends on the current size of the population, the intrinsic rate of the population, and the amount of time over which the population grows
when the population becomes larger than the spring carrying capacity