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Chapter 1 Marine Biology

review for Mrs. Siek's chapter 1 test
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What are some reasons to study marine biology?
Life on earth probably origionated in the sea, many medical advances are found by studying marine organisms, many unknown organisms
Stone Age people
Started to learn basics, fish=food, and how to develp technology to capture fish, as well as study the best places to find the fish/organisms
Micronesians
Navigated the Pacific Ocean for millenia
Phoenicians
First accomplished western navigators, sailed around several seas and oceans
Aristotle
Considered to be first marine biologist. Described many forms of marine life and recognized among other things, that gills are the breathing aparatus of fish
Leif Erikson
Discovered Vinland (North America), explored the northern Atlantic Ocean
Christopher Columbus
Rediscovered "New World" (North America)
Magellan
Sailed around the world - first expedition, Contributed to knowledge of the Oceans and made fairly accurate maps
James Cook
Explored all the oceans, made scientific observations, included full-time naturalist in his crew
Charles Darwin
Mapped coastlines, made detailed observations of all aspects of the natural world, proposed theory of evolution by natural selection, as well as the theory of evolution
Edward Forbes
Carried out extensive dredging of the sea floor, most influential marine biologist of his day, discovered many previously unknown organsisms and recognized that sea floor life varies at different depths. He inspired new interest in the life of the sea floor
HMS Challenger
Had extensiveley renovated labs and quarters for scientific crew, gear for dredging and taking water samples in deep water, and scientific equipment that was the best of its day installed. Sailed around the world for 3 1/2 years, gathered information and collected samples. Brought back more information about the ocean than had been recorded in all previous human history. Set new standards for ocean study and brought back thousands of previously unknown species
Why did coastal marine laboratories become popular?
Kept organisms alive, and scientists could work in the same place for long periods of time with more equipment than possible on a ship.
Woods Hole
The first major American laboratory was Marine Biological Laboratory, and it was located there
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Located in La Julla, one of the earliest marine laboratories established in America
Alvin
a deep sea submarine oporated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, one of most famouse vessels in the history of marine science
R/V Thomas G. Thompson
Oporated by University of Washington, its the first of new generation research vessels
R/V FLIP
Floating Instrument Platform. Opporated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Provides stable platform for research at sea.
What influence did WW2 have on the technology of marine biology?
learning obout marine animals became a matter of national security, so several marine laboratories underwent rapid growth, money was fueld into it, and technology and understanding advanced.
SONAR
Sound Navigation Ranging. Based on detection of underwater echos-a way of listening to the sea.
SCUBA
Self Contained Underwater Breathing Aparatus. Allows humans to breath underwater via compressed air
Explain how Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau are connected to the development of the scuba gear
They modified the aparatus (SCUBA) to make it able to be used to breath compressed air underwater.
Explain why observing the open ocean and its living organisms would be a difficult task
Because it is remote (most of it) and difficult and expensive to get to. It is also a vast and interconnected natwork and conditions at one place are affected by events long distances away
What is the Argo system?
3,000 automated floats scattered throughout most of the ocean, each float continuously bobs between the surface and a depth of 6,600 feet over 10 days measuring water temperature, salinity, and transmiting the data via satellite when at the surface. Some can measure oxygen levels now, and they are developing floats that can go even deeper
Why are oceanographers wiring the ocean floor?
To provide power and communications for an array of instruments that measure currents and water chemistry, detect the slightes sea floor tremors, and track biological activity
COOL
Coastal Oceean Observation Laboratory. Includes underwater gliders, shore based radar, ship measurements, moored instruments. Located off New Jersey Shore, est. 1996
VENUS
Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea. Testing ground for the large network NEPTUNE, located on the coast of British Columbia, Canada in Saanich Inlet, est. 2006
MARS
Monetry Accelerated Research System. Testing ground for the large network NEPTUNE, located off the coast of California, America, est. 2007
NEPTUNE
North East Pacific Time-integrated Undersea Networked Experiments. Wires entire tectonic plate of Juan deFuca, part of an even larger procram: Ocean observatories Initiative, est. 2007
What is the function of genomic sensors?
Measure abundance of plankton and identify them by their DNA
What are the plans for future AUVs?
A fleet of them that will glide through the water surveying more of the sea floor in a few months than scientists could hope for in a lifetime using conventional methods. They are even working on self-powered ones that use plankton as feul.
Why/how is Crittercam used by marine biologists?
To observe faster marine life like seals, sea lions, sharks, that are extremely hard or impossible for humans to follow and do not act naturally when humans are present. It is attached to the animals themselves, and it provides views of animals interacting with their habitat and movements of endangered animals. It provides views of life in deep sea.
Explain how scientist use an Autonomous Underwater Sampler to study the ocean
Its an animal - like an elephant seal - with a transmiter glued to its back. It measures temperatures, depth, salinity, diving behaviors of animals.
What is the major advantage of using an animal equipped with a transmitter?
It provides valuable data on ocean circulation and the animals go to places that scientists can't access any other way.
How are systems such as COOL benefiting society other than scientific research?
Helps forcast tracks of tropical storms/hurricanes. Provide early warning of tsunamies, forcast earthquakes and storms, track effects of climate change, monitor fish populations, make shipping more efficient, help make humanity have wiser use of oceans