Science in the Modern World: Brain and society
Terms in this set (73)
Relates behavior to brain and organ functions
e.g., testosterone develops part of male song bird's brains
Relates the development of a structure or behavior to genes, nutrition and experience
e.g., male song birds learn songs from listening, certain genes are needed
Considers the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior
e.g., other birds sing similar songs (evolved from similar ancestor)
Considers why a structure or behavior evolve as it did
e.g., only male sings, only during reproductive season, attracts females and warns off other males
Both body and mind exist independently.
He was a dualist. He Proposed that the mind and brain interacted at the pineal gland.
there is only one underlying reality - either the body or the mind
The underlying reality is physical (the body).
Mental events don't exist.
Only the mind exists
physical world could not exist without a mind being aware of it.
The mind is brain activity.
Guidelines of research on animals
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
American Psychological Association (APA)
To maximizes potential gain in knowledge and minimizes potential risks to participants.
Federal laws assure proper care for research animals
Animal Welfare Act
committee approval for animal research is approved by
Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
Brain functioning can be explained at a microscopic level in terms of
neuron and glia activity.
American Scholar Charles Peirce
The Fixation of Belief 1877; American scholar; methods of knowing
4 methods of knowing
Reason (aka: a priori)
Believing something because it is what we previously believed
learning through direct observation
Social cognition biases
Belief Perseverance- Confirmation Bias
the tendency to search for and pay attention to information confirming one's beliefs and ignoring contradictory information
the tendency to hold onto a belief even when faced with contradictory evidence.
When we overestimate the frequency of memorable events
Accepting information from others whom we deem trustworthy and knowledgeable
The use of reason and logic to reach a conclusion
A piori method (Peirce)
Beliefs are made from statements that are thought to be true
The systematic gathering and evaluating of empirical evidence to answer questions and test ideas.
John B. Watson
Behaviorism: all behavior is learned. Baby Albert and rat conditioning
Characteristics of Science
Assumptions:Events are not random Patterns have causes Can be discovered
Empirical:Conclusions based on evidence
Evidence gathered in a systematic manner
Controlled Produce data-driven conclusions
Can be tested through observation
Criterion for testability: Falsification
can be answered through systematic observations and techniques
can not be answered through these scientific techniques
After learning the outcome of an event, people believe they could have predicted that very outcome.
Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know.
Example: Underestimating the time it takes us to get ready in the morning.
"It not what you know that's the problem. It's what you know for sure that just isn't true!"
ask a question
developing a hypothesis (a prediction)
test the hypothesis (through research and data collection)
Make the finding available
An explanation that integrates principles, organizes observations, and predicts behavior or events.
For example, memory loss in old age cannot be prevented.
A testable prediction.
Example: All people over the age of 70 years experience the same degree of memory loss no matter how active they are.
Research used to confirm or reject hypotheses.
Example: Administer tests of memory in people over 70 years and to survey or observe their activity levels. Our hypothesis would be confirmed if all subject had similar memory loss.
One person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.
One of Freud's techniques
Advantages and disadvantages of a case study
Individual cases can lead to interesting discoveries
Example: Treatments for autism.
One person may not represent all people
Determines self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people
Usually done by questioning
Wording can change the results of a survey.
Q: Should books with sexual material be allowed in school libraries? (not allowed vs. forbid)
False Consensus Effect
A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
-When each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample
-Biased samples are not valid
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring environments without interfering with the situation.
Advantages and disadvantages of Naturalistic observation
True to life observations.
Can only relate to events
Cannot determine cause and effect
compares groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics
(i.e., education, SES, ethnicity)
the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed
first studies several groups of different ages and then follow those groups over the years
provides data that can be expressed with numbers
contains descriptions of conditions, and participants' ideas
indicates the degree of relationship between two variables.
when both variables tend to increase or decrease together
when one variables tends to increase when the other decreases
a correlation is zero if
no connection is evident
is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables.
The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists.
We are more likely to notice and remember events that confirm our beliefs
Example: Being out in cold weather increases our chances of catching a cold.
is a factor manipulated by the experimenter.
is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable.
Patients and experimenters are unaware of who had the real treatment and who had the placebo.
Controls for placebo effect, or experimental results caused be expectations alone
Describes likelihood that the results happened by change
P < 0.05
Less than 5% of the time this could happen by chance.
a process of systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions and test ideas.
Relies on collected evidence
any field of inquiry that appears to use scientific methods, but is based on inadequate, unscientific methods, and makes claims that are false or simplistic.
Associates with true science
Relies on anecdotal evidence
Sidesteps falsification requirement
Franz Joseph Gall (1758 - 1828)
Phrenology: the structure of the skull related to personality traits
Pierre Flourens (1794 - 1867)
Used experimental ablation to disprove phrenology
you convince yourself that an effort was worthwhile.
Oversimplification of complex processes
making up research data
manipulation of research data or omitting critical data
taking credit for the work of another
failure to publish finings due to the results being adverse to the interest of the researcher or sponsor
University of Vermont
Studied menopause, obesity, aging
Published over 200 journal articles
Accused by lab technician.
Falsified data in 17 grant applications
Sentence: a year and a day in federal prison
Studies cognitive behavior in animals and morality
found 8 instances of misconduct
Example: falsifying data
3 retracted articles
2011, resigned from position at Harvard
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