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What is ethics?

The study of morality

Does the ethical standard change depending on the situation?

1. Matters when we consider somone who has an impact.
2. Ethical standards do change depending on the situation.
3. We tend to see our own actions in a better light.

Difference between Law and Ethics

1. The law is in writing
2. Laws take long to change
3. Ethical principals often require self sacrifice.
4. Laws don't require self sacrifice.

4 Components of The Moral Minimum

1. Honesty
2. Loyalty
3. Keeping Commitments
4. Doing no Harm

is there a duty beyond the "minimum"?

Depends on the "society".

Moral Reasoning and Decision Making

1. I.D. the issues(is it a legal issue?)
2. Which rules apply
3.Analyze the facts and information.
4. Are there any conditions.
5. How do you minimize conflict.
6. Prioritizing


Everyone has their own ethics and therefore never wrong.


Everyone shares a common ground and may share similar ethics principles.


Believes that everything will work out. Irrational way of thinking.


Irrational Confidence

Obedience to authority

Maintaining or changing behavior in the presence of an authority to do what they tell us or want us to do.

Conformity Bias

adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions


A situation in which group members seek unanimous agreement despite their individual doubts

False Consensus Effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

Self-Serving Bias

A readiness to perceive oneself favorably.


In thought, the terms in which a problem is stated or the way that it is structured.(Positively framed, negatively framed.)

Role Morality

People may adopt different moralities for different roles they play in society.

Cognitive Dissonance

An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs

Sunk Cost

require to lose, suffer, or sacrifice

Time-Delay Traps

One situation is deemed more valuable than another situation because it is closer in time.

Loss Aversion

we easily attach ourselves to things and then value them much more than we valued them before we identified with them.

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