(1a) Amino acid is 'activated' meaning that the c-terminus is attached to the hydroxyl group of the adenosine of the trna. This is catalyzed by amino acyl trna synthetase.
(1b) 5' cap and poly A tail interact with each other, recruiting initiation factors.
(2) Ternary complex forms: GTP + IF + Met-tRNA.
(3) Ternary complex binds to small (40S) ribosomal complex and locates AUG start sequence.
(4) AUG triggers GTP hydrolysis, IF's dissociate, large (60S) subunit binds. Met is in P site.
*In prokaryotes, small subunit is 30S, large is 50S. There is no 5'cap or polyA tail, so no interaction. Ribosome binds to purine rich shine-delgarno sequence during initiation.
(1) Elongation factors bind to GTP and amino acyl tRNA.
(2) Correct codon/anticodon pairing leads to GTP hydrolysis. Peptide formation is catalyzed by peptidyl transferase.
(3) New EF2 + GTP complex comes in and bind to large ribosome, GTP hydrolysis leads to translocation. (*Peptide formation is intrinsically driven. Peptide chain transfers from P to A site, then entire tRNA from A site is translocated back to Psite.
2 GTP per Amino Acid!
(1) Once stop codon is reached in the Asite, release factors hydrolyze protein release, chaperones assist in folding.
(1) Repression- Unconsciously remove something from consciousness. Repress.
(2) Suppression- Consciously remove something from our mind, to ignore.
(3) Regression- Mentally regress to childhood, an earlier stage of development.
(4) Reaction Formation- Individual acts in a manner opposite of his true feelings. EX: Two coworkers that have feelings for each other are constantly fighting.
(5) Projection: An individual is disturbed by their own thoughts or actions, so they attribute, 'project' those thoughts as being part of someone else. EX: Those who cheat are often convinced their spouse is cheating.
(6) Rationalization: Justification of immoral behavior, attitudes. EX: Somebody murders another person claiming that they 'deserved it'.
(7) Displacement: When a person shifts their emotion from an unacceptable target, to a more acceptable one. EX: You are angry with your mother, so you attack your brother instead.
(8) Sublimation: Socially unacceptable feelings manifest, and are transformed into socially acceptable actions. EX: People have racist, discriminatory feelings against minorities, so they they are exceedingly nice toward all minorities.