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hoped the age of revolutions was over, big backlash against the French Revolution, time of great change and foundation for the wonderful and awful things that will come in 1900s, influence and impact of French and Industrial Revolution, ideas are still there and happening, Austrian foreign minister Klemens von Metternich a very influential conservative diplomat called revolution "sickness", "plague" and "cancer", saw revolution as producing war and disorder, said peace depended on avoiding political turmoil and reinforcing power of conservative monarchies, 1815 - 1848 saw legitimacy of monarchies challenged, the events we associate with the nineteenth century (1815 - 1914), conservative efforts to restore were only partially successful because effects of the 1700s were impossible to reverse, expansion of informed public continued, liberalism's fundamental principles (equality before the law, freedom of expression, consent of the governed) were still present, threat in the emotions from popular nationalism, liberal nationalists believed sovereignty could only be exercised by citizens acting as one nation, direct opposed conservative monarchy who believed authority came from God and not the people, political opposition to conservative order was now infused with more radical ideologies, some were okay with a constitutional monarchy, others accepted the idea of representation but believed voting was a privilege just for the wealthy property owners, republicans were more radical, called for universal male suffrage and a complete end to monarchy, socialists argued that political reform was not enough to free the people from want and exploitation, thought justice was only possible with radical reordering of society that distributed property equitably, imagination and sense of possibility were defining characteristics, romanticism was a break with Classicism and formality, prized subjectivity, feeling and spontaneity rather than reason, search for a new means of expression
Spanish empire in Latin America could not be restored, Napoleon's conquest of Spain in 1807 had shaken the Spanish empire, local elites in the colonies took advantage of the weakness to push for independence, Rio de la Plata (Argentina) was first to succeed and declared independence in 1816, monarchist general from Rio de la Plata named José de San Martin led an expedition to liberate Chile and Peru, same time Simón Bolívar was a republican leader who sparked uprisings from Venezuela to Bolivia, Bolívar and Martin joined together, Bolívar was more radical and envisioned mobilizing free people of color and slaves and Indians to fight the Spanish, Bolívar's goal was to create Pan-American republic like the USA, political revolts unleashed violent social conflicts and civil war, elite landowners who only wanted freedom from Spain opposed groups who wanted land reform and end of slavery, ultimately radical movements were repressed and newly independent Latin American nations were dominated by alliance of conservative landowners and military officers, Britain and USA prevented European powers from intervening in Latin American revolutions, 1823 Monroe Doctrine said European powers meddling in the Americas would be seen as hostile, Britain saw new South American republics as potential trading partners and used its navy to keep Spain for getting involved, by 1820s Spanish empire was gone and ended an age that began in 1492, Brazil's independence in 1823 ended era of Portuguese colonialism in South America, demonstrated the circular relationships that bound Atlantic world together, would inspire nationalists in Europe who wanted to overthrow the conservative Concert of Europe
Greeks and Serbian revolted against the Ottoman Empire, conservative European powers were more tolerant of this rebellion, Ottoman defeat of Napoleon in 1798 strained Ottoman hold in eastern Mediterranean, Serbs in Balkans revolted 1804, with help of Russians established hereditary rule by Serbian prince in 1817, partial independence, Orthodox Christian principality with a minority of Muslims, inspired the Greeks, formal independence in 1878, Greek war for independence: 1821 - 27, Ottoman empire's borders began to seek independence, ethnic Greeks living all over the empire, before 1800s revolts usually didn't want separation and resolved by redistributing tax burdens or putting in legal reforms, now European powers more likely be involved which resulted in independent states and a weaker Ottoman power, French and British saw area as arena of commercial competition, Russians saw as natural place to exert foreign influence, Greek revolt gained support from Britain, widespread sympathy for Greeks across Europe, christians in Europe saw as ongoing struggle between Christianity and Islam, secular observers saw as struggle between pre-Christian European heritage and Ottoman Empire, celebrating the Greeks went along with demonizing Ottomans, struggle in Greece was brutal and massacres of civilians were often, 1822 Greeks invaded island of Chios and proclaimed independence, Ottomans came to retake the island and Greeks killed prisoners and fled, Ottomans took revenge slaughtering thousands of Greeks and selling 40,000 into slavery, romantic poets and artists joined to show horrors with tons of sympathy for the Greeks, Greek independence depended on great power politics, 1827 British French and Russians sided with the Greeks, forced Ottomans to concede and grant Greek independence, new nations were fragile, Serbia couldn't survive without Russian protection, neither broke close links with Ottomans, European powers recognized regional stability depended on continued existence of Ottomans and collapse would mean serious threat to European peace, in pursuing own self-interests contributed to weakening Ottoman authority
first big blow against the Concert of Europe, returned Bourbons to the throne, Louis XVIII claimed absolute power but granted a "charter" and conceded some important rights like legal equality, careers open to talent and two chamber parliamentary government, voting rights excluded most citizens, narrow base of support with sting of military defeat, nostalgia for glorious Napoleonic past and memories of the revolution undermined the Restoration, 1824 Louis XVIII was succeeded by more conservative Charles X who reigned 1824-30, pleased ultra-royalists by pushing assembly to compensate nobles whose land was taken and sold in the revolution but this angered property holders, restored Catholic Church to traditional place in schools which brought discontent with liberals, revokes the charter with July Ordinances, liberals started to organize opposition movement in Parliament, economic troubled encouraged opposition, worried police reports documented widespread unemployment, hunger and anger, confronted with the evidence of the regime's unpopularity Charles called for an elections, election went against him he tried to overthrow the Parliament with July Ordinances of 1830, dissolved new assembly before it even met, restricted suffrage more and announced strict press censorship, response was a revolution, Parisian workers, artisans and students took to the streets in three days of street battles, press was crucial to the spread of the movement which defied censors and quickly spread news of confrontations between protesters and forced of order, ultimately army was unwilling to fire on the crowd and Charles was forced to abdicate, leaders of the revolution opted for stability by crowning Duke of Orleans Louis-Philippe as a constitutional monarch, will be in charge until the next French revolution, called bourgeois king he will appeal to all levels, will be very popular at first, no intervention because the ruler was still royal, called July Monarchy, doubled number of voters although voting was still based on steep property requirements, propertied classes benefitted the most from the revolution, brought common people back into politics and revived memories of 1789, suggested that history was moving in a new direction and political landscape had changed since Congress of Vienna
reformers who were disappointed with narrow gains in 1832 pushed for expanded political reforms, attention was focused on petition called "People's Charter", six demands: universal white male suffrage, secret ballot, end to property qualifications as condition of public office, annual parliament elections, salaries for members of House of Commons, and equal electoral districts, organized committees across the country and it was eventually signed by millions, spread in climate of economic hardship in 1840s, tapped into local traditions of worker self-help but disagreed with tactics and goals, William Lovett believed in self-improvement and advocated a union of educated workers that could claim fair share of increasing industrial wealth, Fergus O'Connor appealed to impoverished and desperate workers by attacking industrialization and resettlement of poor on agricultural allotments, James Bronterre O'Brien openly expressed admiration for Robespierre and attacked big-bellied little-brained numbskull aristocracy, common goal was social justice through political democracy, Parliament rejected their petitions in 1839 and 1842, members of the movement resorted to strikes, trade union demonstrations and attacks on factories and manufacturers who imposed low wages and long hours or harassed unionists, push Parliament to make small reforms over time and that is why they do not have any revolt, movement people April 1842, inspired by revolutions on the continent, leaders planned major demonstration in London, 25,000 workers warried a petition with 6 million signatures to Parliament, special constables and regular army units were marshaled by Duke of Wellington to resist any threat to public order, in end only small delegation presented the petition, rain and unwillingness to battle put an end to the movement
abolitionists movement did emerge in England, aimed to abolish slave trade, 1780s and forward there were pamphlets and books detailing horrors of slave ships to a more and more sympathetic audience, leaders like William Wilberforce believed slave trade was immoral and hoped banning it would improve conditions for the enslaved, didn't want to make revolt, 1807 reform movement got Parliament to pass bill declaring African Slave Trade contrary to principles of justice, humanity and sound policy, prohibited ships from participating, USA joined and ten years alter Portuguese did as well, argued slavery was becoming less profitable and the decline made humanitarian concern easier to accept, some argued it was expanding, some believe economic factors undermined slavery, Adam Smith argued free labor was more efficient, claimed slavery was wasteful and cruel, culture with high literacy and political traditions in activism the calls for British Liberty mobilized a lot of many, religious revivals supplied a lot of energy for abolitionist movement, Amazing Grace was written by a slave trader turned minister John Newton, moral and religious dimensions of the struggle made it acceptable for women, issue spoke to laborers whose sometimes brutal working conditions and limited political rights, oppose slavery and insist labor be dignified, honorable and minimally free resonated with a lot of social classes, rebellions and conspiracies also shook support especially after Haiti, 1800 slaves rebelled in Virginia, 1811 uprising in Louisiana, 1822 conspiracy in South Carolina, 1816 rebellions in Barbados, 1831 month long in Jamaica, rebellions had no chance of succeeding and usually erupted only when some crack in system opened, divisions within white elite or presence of sympathetic outsider, rebellions increased slaveholder sense of vulnerability and isolation, insisted slavery was vital to survival, aftermath of Great Reform Bill 1832 emancipated 800,000 slaves in colonies, emancipation came to French colonies in 1848, Latin America slavery was dependent on demographics, economics and politics of breaking from empires, most of mainland Spanish American slavery was a secondary importance owed to the relative ease of escape and presence of other sources of labor, struggle for independence escalated nationalist leaders recruited slaves and free people of color to fight the Spanish and promised emancipation, new nations passed emancipation measures in stages but eliminated slavery by middle of the century, 40% of Cuban population was enslaved, Cuban independence movement would have made a slave revolution and that gave an incentive for Cuba to remain under Spain, Spain needed profitable sugar industry and couldn't afford to alienate the planters, combination of slave rebellion in Cuba and liberal revolution in Spain brought abolition beginning in 1870s, 40% of Brazil population also enslaved but they won independence and broke away from Portugal with ease in 1822, slavery endured until 1888
core was commitment to individual liberties or rights, believed most important function of government was to protect liberties, protection would benefit all, promote justice, knowledge, progress and prosperity, three components, equality before the law which meant ending traditional privileges and restrictive power of rank and hereditary authority, government needed to be based on political rights and consent of the governed, believed individuals should be free to engage in economic activities without interference from state or community, roots of legal and political liberalism was in work of John Locke who defended Parliament's rebellion against absolutism and inalienable rights of British people, developed by Enlightenment writers and influenced by founding texts of American and French Revolutions, freedom from arbitrary authority, imprisonment, and censorship, freedom of the press, right to assemble and deliberate, individual rights and that they were inalienable and should be guaranteed by a written constitution, constitutional monarchy instead of hereditary, agreed that a monarch who abused power could legitimately be overthrown, advocated direct representation in government for those who had property and public standing to be trusted with responsibilities of power, didn't require democracy, 1800 liberals torn between belief in rights and fears of political turmoil, considered property and education essential prerequisites for participation in politics, wealthy liberals opposed extending suffrage to common people, demand for universal male suffrage was too radical as was suffrage of women or colored people, liberalism inherited the contradictions of the Enlightenment, belief in individual liberty collided with vested economic interests, determination to preserve order and property and increasingly scientific theories of racial inequality, believed government should have consent of citizens but more likely to support restricted qualification for citizenship, remained suspicious of direct democracy and wanted constitutional safeguards
pointed out that giving men a vote wouldn't definitely mean the eradication of other forms of injustice and inequality, raised the social question and insistent it was an urgent political matter, offered responses and different ways of redistributing economic and social power, ranged from cooperation and new ways of organizing everyday life to collective ownership of means of production, system of thought and response to visible problems brought by industrialization: intensification of labor, poverty of working class neighborhoods, perception that hierarchy based on rank and privilege was replaced by one based on social class, thought problems of industrial society weren't incidental, came from core principles of competition, individualism and private property, didn't oppose industry and economic development, believed society could be industrial and humane, often utopian, Louis Blanc campaigned universal male suffrage with eye to giving working class men control of the state, French politician and journalist, instead of protecting private property and manufacturing class, would become banker of the poor, extend credit to those who needed it and establish associations of production, series of workshops governed by laborers that would guarantee jobs and security, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon proposed establishing producers' cooperatives, sell goods at a price workers could afford, working class credit unions, questioned "What is Property?, answer was property is theft, became a widely read socialist pamphlet, familiar to artisans, laborers and middle-class intellectuals like Marx
Marx and Engels joined a small international group of radical artisans originally called League of the Just, 1847 was renamed Communist League, asked Marx to draft statement of principles, published in 1848 as "The Communist Manifesto" Engels was a coauthor, manifesto laid out theory of history in short form imported the view of history as dynamic process with an inner logic moving toward human freedom, broad appeal to workers, describes communism as hidden haunting and radical, most groups operated in secret, this also appealed to workers, manifesto outlines ideas and beliefs, at the end says they can no longer be secretive, Hegel said historical process didn't unfold in simple or predictable way, said history proceeded dialectically or through conflict, Hegel saw conflict as one between ideas: thesis produced antithesis and clash between the two created distinctive and new synthesis, look at stages, each stage has something different and unique, see the next stage as a reaction, and the following as a synthesis of the two, said that natural but limited freedom of savage encountered opposite in constraints imposed on person by family and developing institutions of society, result of the clash was new and superior freedom of individuals in society protected by moral customs law and the state, looks broadly at themes, admired revolutionary accomplishments of capitalism, argued for a revolution and it would need to be radical (violent, volatile), bourgeoisie created more impressive and colossal productive forces than other generations combined, revolutionary character of capitalism would undermine economic order, capital was more concentrated a growing army of wageworkers would become more aware of their economic and political disenfranchisement, struggle between competing classes was central to industrial capitalism, manifesto predicted recurring economic crises caused by capitalism's unending need for new markets and cyclical instability of overproduction, workers would seize state, reorganize means of production, abolish private property and create a communist society based on egalitarian principles, bourgeois would never voluntarily give up their powers, ultimate revolution would abolish division of labor, end class conflict that was the motor of history, only have a single political party, this would eliminate bias, needs to be international, interests of workers anywhere is the interests of workers everywhere (but only if fully industrialized), nationalism and national borders are bad they are often what leads to war, wars often fall on shoulders of the workers, most taxes and highest casualty rates
most difficult to grasp, at best it brings people together, at its worst it puts people against others, early 1800 nation became symbol of legal equality, constitutional government, unity, or end to feudal privileges and divisions, conservatives disliked the term, national unity and creation of national political institutions threatened to erode power of local aristocrats, new nations rested on constitutions which conservatives saw as abstract and dangerous, nationalism became a rallying cry for liberals because it was associated with political transformation, celebrated the achievements and political awakening of the common people, went along with demands for economic modernity by liberals, economists like Friedrich List wanted to develop national economies and national infrastructures so they are larger, stronger, better integrated and more effective systems of banking, trade, transportation, production and distribution, contrary to some liberal ideas in saying that in commitment to building nations there may be sacrifice of some measure of citizen's freedom, wrote as if national feeling was natural, inscribed in movement of history, national identity changed and developed historically, rested on political and economic developments, rising literacy, creation of national institutions like schools or military, new importance of national rituals, voting, holidays, village festivals, singing anthems, government sought to develop national feeling to link people more closely to the state, state-supported educational systems taught national language which fought centrifugal forces of traditional dialects, Italian became national language except only 2.5% of population spoke it, even a minority could define a national culture, political leaders associated nation with specific causes, ordinary activities helped people imagine and identify with other citizens, nation is imagined as limited, sovereign and a community because regardless of everything else there is a deep comradeship, different meanings of nationhood and various political beliefs and powerful emotions it tapped made nationalism unpredictable
Victor Hugo plays poetry and historical novels focused sympathetically on experience of common people, Delacroix paintings gave revolutionary face to Romanticism, political life no longer preserve of social elites and commoners in street could embrace new freedoms, also be conservative, one French conservative emphasized primacy of religious emotions and feeling that religion was woven into national past and could not be ignored without threatening culture as a whole, broad and popular religious revival and renewed interest in medieval literature, art and architecture which drew heavily on religious themes, early 19th century nationalism took emphasis on individuality and turned it to a faith in uniqueness of individual cultures, Johann con Herder influential nationalist thinker argued civilization came from culture of common people (this opposed philosophe's ideas), insisted each nation must be true to its own particular heritage and history, interest in history and lives of ordinary led to new types of literary and historical works, Brothers Grimm traveled across Germany to study native dialects and folktales, Friechrich Schiller retold story of William Tell to promote national consciousness, Gioacchino Rossini turned the poem into an opera that promoted Italian nationalism, British Sir Walter Scott retold history of Scotland, Pole Adam Mickiewicz wrote a national epic as a vision of Polish past that had been lost, after 1848 nationalist enthusiasm overwhelmed political debates that divided conservatives from liberals and socialists
lots of revolts like crazy amount, most symbolic: March 13, 1848 Metternich forced to resign as minister of state while crowd outside celebrated his departure, conservative balanced system of international relations swept aside with enthusiasm for liberal political ideals and popular anger, Metternich had to flee to England where King Louis-Philippe already was, 1848 revolutions strongly linked to powerful forces of change from French Revolution, last wave of revolutionary movements that started at the end of 18th century, first part of new movement with huge consequences for 20th century, large issues: revolutionary regime change, territorial expansion, economic development, debates on who deserved citizenship, nation had taken on new identity, new radical idea that nations of like peoples and states should be congruent with one another, 1789 -1848 commonly associated nationalism with liberalism, upheavals of 1848 marked high point in the period of liberal revolution and their failure marked the end of the age, end of 19th century conservative governments mobilized people by invoking nationalist themes, only socialism went against the nationalist movement as Marx thought German, British and French workers had more in common with each other, even socialist movements developed nationalist political contexts making socialism in one state different that it in the next, after 1848 was shift in connections between liberalism, nationalism and nation building, territorial changes, France, Britain, Russia and Austria overhauled their bureaucracies, expanded electorates, and reorganized relations among ethnic groups, Russian tsar abolished serfdom, balance of power in Europe shifted towards state that were earliest to industrialize and most successful in building strong centralized states, changing relations between states and those they governed
monarchy after 1830 was not much different than before, many demands to enlarge franchise and prime minister said everyone was free to acquire enough property to qualify, building projects like railways gave lots of opportunities for graft and reputation of government suffered, protest movements as republican societies proliferated in cities, frequently called the "bourgeois king", because follows Britains lead and goes into industrialization and laissez-faire, pleasing for upper middle class, Guizet: Philippe's prime minister, told people who complained about property requirement for voting it was their fault and they should make the money in order to be able to vote, France has limited industrial resources (coal, iron), they harvest aggressively, polarizing figure and suppressed political clubs, 1834 government declared the organizations illegal, rebellions broke out in Paris and Lyon and brought harsh repression that resulted in death and arrests, government refusal to compromise drove moderates into opposition, 1847 organized campaigned for electoral reform around repeated political banquets which was attempt to get around laws against assembly, called for giant banquet February 22, 1848 and king banned the meeting, sudden and surprising popular revolution in the streets caused Louis-Philippe to abdicate the throne, hastily assembled group of political figured declared France a republic, provisional government was made of liberals, republicans and socialists, produced a new constitution with elections based on universal male suffrage, one of their first acts was abolition of slavery in France and French colonies, tensions between propertied republicans and socialists broke the unity of the coalition, workers were suffering from the economic crisis and demanded the right to earn a living wage, elected a very political diverse government - everyone except, first time socialists are included, important - they take on a ton of socialist, Louis Napoleon comes back, appeals to wide range of citizens, conservationists: provides stability, liberals: stability and laissez-faire economics, peasants: incorporates Church more into French society, important because he represents a new conservative style of leadership, first to change the nature of conservatism in Europe, move towards conservatism that is pro-business that appeals to middle class, first to embrace nationalism to bring classes together, 1851- plebiscite puts him into emperor, ends French Republic and becomes an empire, named Napoleon, Concert of Europe/Big Five is okay with this, doesn't seem to represent a threat, doesn't seem to be revolutionary or aggressive to other European powers
diverse collection of people and ethnicities, all infected with nationalism, all want their own countries or autonomy in their countries, Hapsburgs try to make it more unified by making them German, make them print in German and teach German in schools, only makes middle class write and speak occasionally in German but in their own languages for everything else, nationalism is cause and failure of these revolutions, no unity among these groups, divide between class lines, peasants hate lords and look to Habsburg as protectors, outbreaks occur from middle class but not supported by peasants, also good at dividing and conquering, Hungary: one region it almost works, biggest part of Austria, most unified in class and languages, seize control and almost have autonomy rule under Habsburgs, lasts for a few months and then crushed by huge Russian army because of Holy Alliance, Kossuth stepped up his campaigns against the Metternich system of Habsburg autocracy and control, demanded representative institutions, autonomy for the Hungarian Magyar nation, Vienna: popular movement of students and artisans, demanded political and social reforms, built barricades and attacked the imperial palace, Central Committee of Citizens, Metternich fled to Britain, government concessions, male suffrage and single house of representatives, withdrew troops from Vienna, worked toward the abolition of serfdom, yielded to Czech demands in Bohemia, Italian liberals and nationalists attacked empire's territories in Naples and Venice, paradox of nationalism, no cultural or ethnic majority could declare its independence without prompting rebellion elsewhere, student- and worker-led insurrection in Prague (May 1848), Austrian troops sent to restore order, Slav congress disbands, March Laws: Hungarian parliament abolished serfdom and noble privilege, established freedom of the press and of religion, changed suffrage requirements, enfranchised small-property holders, provoked opposition from Croats, Serbs, and Romanians within Hungary, Austrian government appointed anti- Magyar Josip Jelacic as governor of Croatia, Kossuth severed all ties between Hungary and Austria, Franz Joseph asked Nicholas I of Russia for military support, Hungarian revolt was crushed (August 1849), liberal government capitulated on October 31, 1849, reestablished censorship, disbanded the National Guard and student organizations, 25 revolutionary leaders went to the firing squad, Kossuth exiled himself to Turkey
new kind of leader, starts as president and elected leader, does his best to appeal to all varieties of French people, believed in personal rule and centralized state, controlled nation's finances, army and foreign affairs, assembly was elected by universal male suffrage, only assembly could approve legislation drafted at emperor's direction, really couldn't do anything without Napoleon, limited power, regime aimed to undermine traditional elites by expanding bureaucracy and cultivating new relationship with people, took steps to develop economy, harbored near-utopian faith in power of industrial expansion to bring prosperity, political support and national glory, encouraged credit and new forms of financing, passed new limited-liability laws, signed free-trade treaty with Britain in 1860, go from long standing enemies to allies, worked to support Greeks in their independence, in Crimean War they work closely together and coordinate, supported creation of Credit Mobilier investment banking that sold shares and financed railroads, insurance and gas companies, coal and construction companies and building of Suez Canal, France doesn't take control of it and makes deal to lease land, be greatest engineering power at the time, reluctantly permitted existence of trade unions and legalized strikes, appealed to workers and middle class and sought to gain support for goal and reestablishing France as a leading world power, biggest was transformation of the capital city, Paris's medieval infrastructure was buckling under weight of population increase and industrial development, did a lot to expand industrial capacity, appeals to liberal middle class, cholera epidemics in 1832 and 1849, 1850 1/5 houses had running water, concerns about public health, political fears of crime and revolutionary militancy in working-class neighborhoods, massive rebuilding project made 34,000 new buildings, included elegant hotels with first elevators, new water pipes, sewer lines, streets, rationalized traffic flow, wide new boulevards, was an old city with dangerous slums, trolley tracks for public transit, got rid of slums for beautification and decrease chances of revolutions, rising rents drove working people from city center into increasingly segregated suburbs
Britain was significantly less effected by the wave of revolutions, faced more demands to extend franchise beyond middle class, two groups: conservatives and liberals but neither fit into the working class, liberal party starts to favor universal male suffrage, industrial expansion sustained growing stratum of highly skilled and relatively well-paid workers who were almost all male, workers concentrated within building engineering and textile industries, turned away from tradition of militant radicalism, favored collective self-help in cooperative societies or trade unions, major role was to accumulate funds for insurance against old age and unemployment, saw education as tool for advancement and patronized mechanics' institutes and similar institutions, created pressure for electoral reform, some argued for right to vote in name of democracy, some said they were responsible workers respectable and upstanding members of society with strong religious convictions and patriotic feelings, unquestionably loyal to the state and deserved vote and direct representation, many workers joined with middle-class dissenting reformers in the Liberal party, dissenters had long faced discrimination of denied posts, denied access to education, resented paying taxes to support Anglican church, community of dissent crossed class lines and this was vital to Liberal party politics, countrywide campaign for new reform bill, House of Commons was responsive, backed by some conservatives like Benjamin Disraeli (prime minister) who argued political life would be improved, not disrupted by including aristocrats of labor, idea that labor aristocracy are leaders of working class, have some wealth and would appreciation political stability, gets support from both parties, Disraeli got a bill through Parliament that reached further than anything of his opponents, 1867 Reform Bill doubled franchise, extended voting rights to any men who paid poor rates or rent of 10 pounds or more per year in urban areas (skilled workers) and rural tenants paying 12 pounds or more, not universal but reduced property requirements, lot of workers would come into the liberal party but would ultimately destruct the liberal party and create Labor party, redistributed seats with large northern cities gaining representation at expense of rural south, allowed all responsible working class men to participate, success of the bill points to influence of Chartist movement from 1840s, reform bill was silent about women, decade after the bill marked height of British liberalism, opened doors to political participation, accomplished peaceful restructuring of political institutions and social life, made it clear everything wasn't open to everyone, insisted female individuality would destabilize family life, opposition to women's suffrage showed idea that casting a ballot was a privilege only for specific social groups in return for their contributions to society, expansion of franchise made new constituencies with new ambitions
Paced way for socialist and labor politics
October 1853 Turkey declared war and were also persuaded they would be supported by British, war became disaster for Turks who lost entire fleet of ships in November, Russian success alarmed British and French who saw Russian expansion as a threat to their interests in the Balkans and route to India, France and Britain declared war on Russia in March 1854, Russian supplies and troops take much longer because they do not have railroads around there, nothing to connect, September 1854 they arrived on peninsula of Crimea and went towards naval base at Sevastopol which they wanted to siege, France, Britain and Ottomans also had support of Italian state Piedmont-Sardinia (get involved with aspirations in becoming a nation-state), war was generally short and conduct was devastating, conditions on Crimean peninsula were die and disastrous mismanagement of supplies and hygiene by troops led to epidemics, have invention and development of modern nursing, constant continuous care of wounded, hydrate men and clean wounds, fighting was bitter, notoriously inept strategy by the British of "charge of the Light Brigade", British cavalry unit was slaughtered, combat often settled by bayonets, French and British were tougher and dominated the seas but Russia didn't give clear victory, Sevastopol didn't fall until September 1855, nothing was conquered and seized, was a nightmare for public, prelude to WWI as a lot of the tactics were introduced first here, lots of charges and not a lot of land gained, conflict ended by treaty in 1856, was short, ineffective and bloody
negative effect for everyone but Sardinians, French and Sardinians it bolstered positive national sentiments, British and Russians it provoked waves of intense criticism, Ottomans get even weaker and have more pushing for independence (Serbia), Britain will enter "Splendid Isolation" only not getting into European wars but will move throughout the world, France will look for more successes, peace settlement dealt a blow to Russia, Russian influence drastically curbed in Balkans, Moldavia and Walachia united as Romania and became independent, go through periodic periods of modernization, will have another period thanks to the Crimean War, fought the war with mostly same methods and mentalities as Napoleonic Wars, brought innovations that forecast direction of modern warfare, first significant use of rifled muskets, underwater mines and trench warfare, rifles don't take as long to load and are more accurate, first tactical use of railroads and telegraphs, transportation and communication faster than ever before, war was covered by first modern war correspondents and photojournalists, most public war to date, London Times reporter William Howard Russell heaped criticism on government for the conditions, care and supply of troops became national scandal, public opinions will shift dramatically, produced dramatic changes in military's administrative and logistical systems, made heroes of individual doctors and nurses like Nightingale, Roger Fenton was most prominent and prolific war photographer and captured grim realities of camp life, introduced new level of realism and immediacy to conception of war
serfdom was starting to draw significant protest from intelligentsia under Catherine the Great, after 1789 and 1848 abolition of serfdom in other places made it more urgent, abolishing serfdom became part of larger project of building Russia as a modern nation, both schools of thought agreed serfdom must be abolished, Russian nobility opposed emancipation, debates about lords being compensated for the loss and how serfs would survive checked progress of the issue, Crimean War broke the impasse, after the war Alexander II pushed the issue, will be a reformer
Persuaded serfdom would only continue to prompt violent conflict and that the war has sapped Russian strength and contributed to their defeat, undertook state reforms and expanded territory, expansion of railroads that connected all parts of the empire, eventually build railroad from St. Petersburg to Pacific Ocean, pressed East and South, invaded and conquered several independent Islamic kingdoms along former Silk Road in central asia and expanded into Siberia in search of natural resources, diplomacy brought many commercial concessions from Chinese that led to founding of Siberian city Vladivostok in 1860, racial ethnic and religious differences made governing difficult, most cases didn't try to assimilate populations, acceptance of ethnic particularity was pragmatic response to difficulties of governing a heterogeneous population, attempted to impose Russian culture but this was disastrous, powerful centrifugal forces pulled against genuine unification
hadn't been united since Roman Empire, at beginning of 19th century was a patchwork of small states, Austria occupied northern states of Lombardy and Venetia most urban and industrial, Hapsburgs controlled Tuscany, Parma and Modena which extending Austrian influence, independent Italian states was southern kingdom of Two Sicilies governed by members of Bourbon family and Papal states ruled by Pope Gregory XVI and Piedmont-Sardinia ruled by Charles Albert of House of Savoy, Charles had no commitment to creating Italian national state, by virtue of Sardinia's economic power, geographical location and long tradition of opposition to Habsburgs the state played central role in nationalist and anti-Austrian politics, many liberals shared commitment to creating single Italian state but not the enthusiasm for people and popular movements, hoped instead to merge existing governments into a constitutional monarchy or government under pope, Mazzini's insistence on democratic republic committed to social and political transformation struck pragmatic liberals as utopian, saw well to do middle class people as dangerous, political turmoil raised hopes for political and social change, divided goals but shared common hope that national unification might get them the reforms, popular uprising in Rome confronted Pope directly and February 1849 new government in Rome declared itself a republic, March 1849 Mazzini came from exile to join movement in Rome but the movement wasn't coordinated or successful, over months Austrians gained upper hand in the North, French forces under Louis Napoleon intervened in Rome and Papal States, fierce resistance from Roman republicans and Giuseppe Garibaldi, still managed to restore pope's power and defeat the republic, Venetian Republic was last to fall after blockade and artillery bombardment from Austrian army in August 1849, uprisings raised hopes of nationalists who spoke of Italian resurgence
often met resistance and protest, Great Mutiny - revolt of Indian soldiers on British army, soldiers were disciplined for not using cartridges greased with pork fat, involved social economic and political grievances, attacked law courts and burned tax rolls, protest debt and corrupt, annexed areas defended traditional leader, religious leaders took the chance to denounce missionaries and assault on local traditions, loyal Indian troops from the south come up and British soldiers from Crimean War, all burning and blood caught British public's attention, made them seem like heroes, transformed the state to only a resource source, India no longer had large production, now had to reorganize empire and develop new strategies, Company was abolished and replaced by crown, British Raj governed directly but also had collaborators and cooperative groups, largely left to Indian princes with British advisers, reorganized military, indigenous troops separated, sought to rule upper classes rather than be in opposition, civil service opened positions to Indian upper class, missionary activity not encouraged anymore, more secular reform projects, still had some lack on consensus on strategies, Viceroy of India: Lord Curzon, most prominent representatives of new imperialism in India, needed to see how central India was to make this work, became largest export market, India supplied: trade, balance of payments, human resources, laborers, indentured servants, engineers, land surveyors, clerks, teachers, merchants, indirect rule wanted to create Indian elite that would serve British interests, created British educated Indian civil servants and businessmen, provided leadership for nationalist movement against Britain, large economic gap forming
economic growth and demands of mass consumption spurred the reorganization of capitalist institutions, modern corporation appeared, limited-liability laws, stockholders would only lose their share value in the event of bankruptcy, middle classes now considered corporate investment promising, limited liability corporation, can't lose more than you invested, size and control, larger corporations became necessary for survival, control shifted from the family to distant bankers and financiers, ethos of impersonal finance capital, demand for technical expertise, undercut traditional forms of family management, university-trained engineers, white-collar class: middle-level salaried managers, neither owners nor laborers, consolidation would protect industries from cyclical fluctuations and unbridled competition, vertical integration: industries controlled every step of production, from acquisition of raw materials to distribution of finished goods, Andrew Carnegie's steel company in Pittsburgh, horizontal integration: organized into cartels, non competition pact, own territories, companies in the same industry would band together, fixing prices and controlling competition, coal, oil, and steel were particularly well adapted, Rockefeller's Standard Oil, make sure that companies that are already there remain, no one else gets into the game, circumventing supply demand and competition, monopolies: very rich people try to build and dominate industries, public and private relations, governments with private firms come together to work on something, sometimes good (Suez and Panama Canals), business people getting involved in government and maintaining position in company, encourages imperialism especially if don't pay for it directly, can guarantee market or resources very support it, dominant trend was increased cooperation between government and industry, appearance of businessmen and financiers as officers of state
causes: loss of the Russo-Japanese War, Tsar is ineffective authoritarian, rapid industrialization had transformed Russia unevenly, low grain prices resulted in peasant uprisings, student radicalism, Russian inefficiency, radical workers organized strikes and demonstrations, Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905) was culmination of the revolution, two hundred thousand workers led by Father Gapon demonstrated at the Winter Palace, guard troops killed 130 and wounded several hundred, protest grew, merchants closed stores, factory owners shut down factories, lawyers refused to hear cases, autocracy had lost control, Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, guaranteed individual liberties, creates Russian legislature of the Duma, makes the legislature so that representatives are picked from different districts and most districts are made favorable to him, get gets to nominate some, moderately liberal franchise for the election of a Duma, genuine legislative veto powers for the Duma, by the time the people realize that the legislation wasn't really people power the revolutionary fervor dies out, Nicholas failed to see that fundamental change was needed, 1905-1907: Nicholas revoked most of the promises made in October, deprived the Duma of its principal powers, Peter Stolypin (1862-1911) and the Stolypin reforms (1906-1911), agrarian reforms for the sale of 5 million acres of royal land to peasants, granted peasants permission to withdraw for the mir, canceled peasant property debts, legalized trade unions, established sickness and accident insurance, Russian agriculture remained suspended between emerging capitalism and the peasant commune