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APEH Spielvogel 21 19th Century, Pt. 2
Terms in this set (22)
Political and economic ideology emerging in the 19th century. argued for government to be as small as possible to allow the exercise of individual freedom. In its most extreme form, neo-classical liberalism advocated Social Darwinism.
Classic economic theory whose primary tenet is "laissez-faire," or the belief that the state should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demand.
Wrote Essay on the Principles of Population that said nature imposes natural restraints on population, which government should not try to change because population outpaces the food supply's ability to keep up.
Wrote "Principles of Political Economy" that argued against raising wages arbitrarily because it only perpetuates the vicious cycle of workers having larger families only to succumb to poverty.
iron law of wages
Proposed law of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.
Ideology based on the protection of civil liberties or the basic rights of all people, including equality before the law, freedom of assembly, speech and press.
The right to vote. Many 19t century liberals believed in civil equality, but not political equality--therefore gender or property requirements still existed for voting.
A liberal who believed in egalitarianism, or equality for all, for all things.
Belief that the purpose of morality is to make life better by increasing the amount of good things (such as pleasure and happiness) in the world and decreasing the amount of bad things (such as pain and unhappiness).
John Stuart Mill
Liberal Utilitarianist who wrote "On Liberty" that was a treatise on liberty of the individual and protection against the tyranny of the majority.
On the Subjugation of Women
An essay John Stuart Mill wrote with his wife Harriet Taylor arguing the legal subordination of one sex to another was wrong.
A powerful force arising in the 19th century that was based on awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, historical traditions, language, and customs. Nationalists believe that each community should have its own government.
Ideology emerging in the 19th century in response to the terrible conditions found in the slums, mines and factories based on bringing equality into social conditions rooted in human cooperation, not competition.
A derisive term used by opponents of those against having private property, and against the competitive spirit of early capitalism.
Early socialist who advocated creating voluntary associations to demonstrate the advantages of cooperative living called phalansteries.
Communal housing unit ideally consisting of 1,620 people who would work and live together for their mutual benefit.
British cotton manufacturer who believed that humans wold reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.
Cooperative living environment planned by Robert Owen in Indiana in the 1820s that failed due to bickering amongst those in the community.
In "The Organization of Work," he maintained that social problems could be solved by government assistance, and denounced competition as the main cause of economic evils.
Zoe Gatti de Gamond
Belgian follower of Fourier who established her own phalanstery based on men and women sharing equally in work.
The Comte de Saint-Simon
Combined Christian values, scientific thought, and socialist utopianism that proved attractive to a number of women who had been attracted to activism by the French Revolution.
Tried to synthesize socialism and feminism, and whose "Worker's Union" advocated the application of Fourier's ideas to reconstruct both family and work.
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