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Chapter 2-The Chemical Level of Organization (Anatomy)

Chapter 2 Vocabulary in "Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology" Eighth Edition by Elaine N. Marieb
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Chemistry
The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes.
Matter
That which has mass and occupies space.
Mass
The amount of matter in an object.
Atom
The smallest particle of an element.
Proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge.
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron Cloud
Area around the nucleus of an atom where the atom's electrons are most likely to be found.
Element
Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means.
Isotope
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Mass Number
The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus.
Radioisotope
Isotope with an unstable nucleus that becomes more stable by spontaneously emitting energy and particles.
Half-life
The time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation an decay products.
Chemical Bond
The attractive force that holds atoms or ions together.
Molecule
The simplest structural unit of an element or compound.
Compound
A substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight.
Ionic Bond
A chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion.
Ion
A particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative).
Covalent Bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity.
Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally.
Hydrogen Bond
Weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms.
Surface Tension
The uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid; as if a thin film was stretch across the surface.