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64 terms

Section I Clinical Notes

This is all the Clinical Notes and Diseases from Section I. Hope this helps in studying =)
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Calcium Channel Blockers
medications that prevent calcium channels from opening (relax arteries)
Cystic Fibrosis
chloride pumps fail to create adequate saline layer under mucus
Cystic Fibrosis (consequence)
thick mucus plugs pancreatic ducts & respiratory tract
Immotile Cilia Syndrome
mutation in proteins of cilia & flagella (aka Kartagener syndrome)
Immotile Cilia Syndrome (symptoms)
immotile spermatozoa, male infertility, & chronic respiratory infections
Tay-Sachs disease
lysosomal storage disease; glycolipids are endocytosed & accumulate in neurons of brain
Tay-Sachs disease (cause)
Hexosaminidase A enzyme deficiency
Vincristine
(chemo drug) microtubule assembly disruptor used to prevent cell division & tumor growth
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
hereditary disease with abnormally low number of LDL receptors
Marfan's Syndrome
abnormal expression of the fibrillin 1 gene
Marfan's Syndrome (consequence)
abnormal elastic tissue (e.x. hyperextendible joints, hernias, & enormous dilation of aorta)
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
inherited defect that affects elaboration of collagen fibers
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (symptoms)
hyperelasticity of skin & joint dislocations
Pemphigus Vulgaris
(autoimmune disease) autoantibodies attack proteins of desmosomes
Metaplasia
change from 1 cell/tissue type to another as a result of physical/chemical stress
Skin Growth Disease
cyst, malformation, or a benign or malignant neoplasm
Rash
inflammatory skin condition or a dermatitis
Acne
inflammation of the sebaceous glands
Dermatitis
any inflammation of the skin (itching and redness)
Eczema
itchy, red, "weeping" skin lesions caused by an allergy
Psoriasis
recurring, reddened plaques covered with silvery scale
Rosacea
a red rashlike area (nose & cheeks) marked by fine networks of dilatd blood vessels
Seborrheic
recurring patches of scaly white or yellowish inflammation (head, face, chest, & back)
Tinea
any fungal infection of the skin
Basal Cell Carcinoma
skin cancer arises from stratum basale (containing sebaceous glands) & invades dermis
Basal Cell Carcinoma (characteristic)
small shiny bump (enlarges into a central depression, beaded "pearly" edge)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
skin cancer arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum; penetrates the dermis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (characteristic)
raised, reddened, scaly appearance (later forming concave ulcer with raised edges)
Malignant Melanoma
skin cancer arises from melanocytes of a preexisting mole (most deadly)
Malignant Melanoma (characteristic)
ABCD - asymmetry, border irregular, color mixed, & diameter over 6 mm
1st-degree Burn
only the epidermis (red, painful and edema)
2nd-degree Burn
epidermis & part of dermis (blistered)
3rd-degree Burn
epidermis, dermis, & more is destroyed
Rickets
defective mineralization of bone in children (Vit D deficiency)
Osteomalacia
mineralization of bone matrix is impaired (soft bones); Vit D deficiency
Osteoporosis
decreased bone mass; spicules thinner than normal bone
Osteogenesis imperfecta
"Brittle Bone Disease" (genetic disorder of type I collagen)
Osteitis deformans
excessive proliferation of osteoclasts & resorption of excess bone
Osteomyelitis
Inflammation of osseous tissue & bone marrow due to bacterial infection
Pituitary Dwarfism
deficiency of growth hormone; proportional failure of bone growth
Gigantism
excess growth hormone (prior epiphyseal plate closure); abnormal bone length
Acromegaly
excess growth hormone (post epiphyseal plate closure); thickening of bones
Achondroplastic Dwarfism
failure of cartilage growth; long bones stop growing; normal torso, short limbs
Osteocalcin
bone specific vit K-dependent calcium binding protein
BMPs
bone morphogenic proteins; induce differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts
Long term risk of PPI's
increase in fracture due to no calcium absorption in stomach (no acidification)
Arthritis
broad term embracing more than 100 types of joint rheumatism
Bursitis
inflammation of a bursa, usually due to overexertion of a joint
Dislocation
displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint
Gout
chronic metabolic disease characterized by an elevated body load of uric acid
Rheumatism
broad term for any pain in the supportive & locomotory organs of the body
Sprain
torn ligament or tendon
Strain
painful overstretching of a tendon or muscle without serious tissue damage
Synovitis
inflammation of a joint capsule (specifically the synovial sheath)
Tendinitis
a form of bursitis in which a tendon sheath is inflamed
Rotator Cuff Tears
tears of 1 or more of the 4 tendons of the rotator cuff muscles (most typically involves the supraspinatus muscle)
Osteoarthritis
most common form of arthritis (not a systemic disease)
Rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune attack on the joints (synovial membrane); symmetrical inflammation of joints
Plantar Fasciitis
inflammation of the plantar fascia at its attachment site on the calcaneus
Halux Valgus
deviation of the great toe medially
Bunion
inflammation of soft tissue of 1st MTP joint followed by bone deposition
Spina Bifida
neural tube defect due to insufficient folic acid
Addison disease
bronzing of the skin due to deficiency of glucocorticoid hormones
Familial Hypercholesterolemia
(hereditary disease) abnormally low number of LDL receptors