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This is all the Clinical Notes and Diseases from Section I. Hope this helps in studying =)

Calcium Channel Blockers

medications that prevent calcium channels from opening (relax arteries)

Cystic Fibrosis

chloride pumps fail to create adequate saline layer under mucus

Cystic Fibrosis (consequence)

thick mucus plugs pancreatic ducts & respiratory tract

Immotile Cilia Syndrome

mutation in proteins of cilia & flagella (aka Kartagener syndrome)

Immotile Cilia Syndrome (symptoms)

immotile spermatozoa, male infertility, & chronic respiratory infections

Tay-Sachs disease

lysosomal storage disease; glycolipids are endocytosed & accumulate in neurons of brain

Tay-Sachs disease (cause)

Hexosaminidase A enzyme deficiency


(chemo drug) microtubule assembly disruptor used to prevent cell division & tumor growth

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

hereditary disease with abnormally low number of LDL receptors

Marfan's Syndrome

abnormal expression of the fibrillin 1 gene

Marfan's Syndrome (consequence)

abnormal elastic tissue (e.x. hyperextendible joints, hernias, & enormous dilation of aorta)

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

inherited defect that affects elaboration of collagen fibers

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (symptoms)

hyperelasticity of skin & joint dislocations

Pemphigus Vulgaris

(autoimmune disease) autoantibodies attack proteins of desmosomes


change from 1 cell/tissue type to another as a result of physical/chemical stress

Skin Growth Disease

cyst, malformation, or a benign or malignant neoplasm


inflammatory skin condition or a dermatitis


inflammation of the sebaceous glands


any inflammation of the skin (itching and redness)


itchy, red, "weeping" skin lesions caused by an allergy


recurring, reddened plaques covered with silvery scale


a red rashlike area (nose & cheeks) marked by fine networks of dilatd blood vessels


recurring patches of scaly white or yellowish inflammation (head, face, chest, & back)


any fungal infection of the skin

Basal Cell Carcinoma

skin cancer arises from stratum basale (containing sebaceous glands) & invades dermis

Basal Cell Carcinoma (characteristic)

small shiny bump (enlarges into a central depression, beaded "pearly" edge)

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

skin cancer arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum; penetrates the dermis

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (characteristic)

raised, reddened, scaly appearance (later forming concave ulcer with raised edges)

Malignant Melanoma

skin cancer arises from melanocytes of a preexisting mole (most deadly)

Malignant Melanoma (characteristic)

ABCD - asymmetry, border irregular, color mixed, & diameter over 6 mm

1st-degree Burn

only the epidermis (red, painful and edema)

2nd-degree Burn

epidermis & part of dermis (blistered)

3rd-degree Burn

epidermis, dermis, & more is destroyed


defective mineralization of bone in children (Vit D deficiency)


mineralization of bone matrix is impaired (soft bones); Vit D deficiency


decreased bone mass; spicules thinner than normal bone

Osteogenesis imperfecta

"Brittle Bone Disease" (genetic disorder of type I collagen)

Osteitis deformans

excessive proliferation of osteoclasts & resorption of excess bone


Inflammation of osseous tissue & bone marrow due to bacterial infection

Pituitary Dwarfism

deficiency of growth hormone; proportional failure of bone growth


excess growth hormone (prior epiphyseal plate closure); abnormal bone length


excess growth hormone (post epiphyseal plate closure); thickening of bones

Achondroplastic Dwarfism

failure of cartilage growth; long bones stop growing; normal torso, short limbs


bone specific vit K-dependent calcium binding protein


bone morphogenic proteins; induce differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts

Long term risk of PPI's

increase in fracture due to no calcium absorption in stomach (no acidification)


broad term embracing more than 100 types of joint rheumatism


inflammation of a bursa, usually due to overexertion of a joint


displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint


chronic metabolic disease characterized by an elevated body load of uric acid


broad term for any pain in the supportive & locomotory organs of the body


torn ligament or tendon


painful overstretching of a tendon or muscle without serious tissue damage


inflammation of a joint capsule (specifically the synovial sheath)


a form of bursitis in which a tendon sheath is inflamed

Rotator Cuff Tears

tears of 1 or more of the 4 tendons of the rotator cuff muscles (most typically involves the supraspinatus muscle)


most common form of arthritis (not a systemic disease)

Rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune attack on the joints (synovial membrane); symmetrical inflammation of joints

Plantar Fasciitis

inflammation of the plantar fascia at its attachment site on the calcaneus

Halux Valgus

deviation of the great toe medially


inflammation of soft tissue of 1st MTP joint followed by bone deposition

Spina Bifida

neural tube defect due to insufficient folic acid

Addison disease

bronzing of the skin due to deficiency of glucocorticoid hormones

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

(hereditary disease) abnormally low number of LDL receptors

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