Elementary Education Praxis 5002
Terms in this set (67)
Phonemic Awareness vs. Phonological Awareness
is the acknowledgment of sounds and words. Ex. a child realizing that some words rhyme, or knowing that the sound of the letter b in the word bad can then be changed to with the sound d to make the word dad. The key is that phonemic awareness can be taught with the students' eyes closed- it's about
not ascribing written letters to sounds.
is the ability of the reader to recognize the sounds of spoken language. This includes how these sounds can be blended, segmented (broken up), and manipulated (switched around). It helps students sound out words. Children acquires phonological awareness when they are taught the sounds made by the letters and the sounds made by combinations of letters, and the ability to recognize individual sounds in words. Phonological awareness skills include: rhyming and syllabification, blending sounds, identifying the beginning and ending sounds of words, segmenting words into sounds, recognizing small words inside bigger words by removing starting sounds (hear to ear)
Individual sounds in words
The connection between the sounds and letters on a page. So a child must see the word bad and sound out each letter until they recognize that they just said the word.
Fluency in supporting comprehension
Fluency in reading depends on automatic word identification, which helps the student achieve active comprehension of the material.
Automatic reading involves the development of strong orthographic representations, which allows fast and accurate identification of whole words made up of specific letter patterns
Concerns versification of text and involves such matters as which syllable of a word is accented
In order for students to be effective readers they must recognize these four types of words automatically
1) Regular for reading and spelling
2) Regular for reading but not for spelling (float, brain- could be spelled flote or brane)
3) Rule based (canning- doubling rule; faking- drop e rule)
4) Irregular (beauty)
The ability to perceive and recall letter strings and word forms as well as the retrieval of letters and words. Sight word vocabulary for both reading and spelling depends on this skill. A weakness in this results in slow reading rates and problems with spelling, which in turn affects reading comprehension and writing fluency.
Evaluating a word for its part of speech and its place in the sentence. For example, the reader determines whether the word is a noun, verb, adjective, or other part of speech. Ex. if it's an adjective, the reader determines which word it modifies. Syntactic cueing directly affects readings comprehension
Determining the meaning of a word, phrase, or sentence and determining what the passage is about.
Successful program for reading comprehension
1) Large amounts of time for actual text reading
2) Teacher-directed instruction in comprehension strategies
3) Opportunities for peer and collaborative learning
4) Occasions for students to talk to a teacher and one another about their responses to reading
The process readers use to figure out unfamiliar words based on written patterns
The process of automatically determining the pronunciation and some degree of the meaning of an unknown word
Changing communication signals into messages
Changing a message into symbols
What is important to understanding nonfiction?
Realizing what is truth and what is perspective
These types of books explain concepts or phenomena. May explain the history of a state or the idea of photosynthesis. Usually based on research.
These short texts rely on completely factual information and are presented in a very straightforward, sometimes choppy manner. Purpose is to present information to readers in a quick and efficient manner.
Usually, essays take an opinion and describe how the opinion was arrived at or why the opinion is a good one
These texts describe the lives of individuals. Usually based on extensive research
Like an autobiography, but tend to be based on a specific idea, concept, issue, or event in life.
When letters are read and analyzed in classrooms, students generally study the writer's style or the writer's true opinion
Like letters, journals present personal ideas. They gives students the opportunity to see peoples' thought processes about various events or issues.
Opens up a world where right wins out over wrong, hard work and perseverance is rewarded, and helpless victims find vindication. Children are introduced to fanciful beings, humans with exaggerated powers, talking animals, and heroes that will inspire them .
Adventures of animals or humans and the supernatural typically characterize these stories. Focuses on good and evil, reward and punishment.
Tell their story with the illustration as well as with text. The text is often limited, but can be essential. Often a child's first introduction to books and print.
Animals that act like humans are featured in these stories, the animals usually reveal human foibles or teach a lesson
Stories about events from the earliest times, such as the origin of the world, are often considered true in various societies.
Similar to myths, except that they are usually about events that occurred more recently, ex. American myths
Purposely exaggerated accounts of individuals with superhuman strength. Ex. Paul Bunyan, John Henry, Pecos Bill
Many themes in these stories are similar to those in traditional literature. Start out based in reality, which make it easier for the reader to suspend disbelief, and enter into worlds of unreality. Helps elementary aged students develop their imagination- typically appeals to the ideals of justice and issues related to good and evil.
Robots, spacecraft, mystery, and civilizations from other ages often appear in these stories. Most presume advances in science on other planets or in a future time. Students like these because of the space aspect and the "what if" idea.
Modern realistic fiction
These stories are about real problems that real children face. By finding that their fears and hopes are shared by others, young children can find insight into their own problems.
Provides the opportunity to introduce younger children to history in a beneficial way.
About inventors, explorers, scientists, political, and religious leaders, social reformers, artists, sports figures, doctors, teachers, writers, and war heroes help children see that one person can make a difference. Also allows children to see future occupation options.
Ways for children to learn more about something they are interested in or something that they know little about.
Pre- and Adolescent Literature
Focus on establishing relationships with members of the opposite sex and learning to cope with changing bodies, personalities, or life situations.
Major purpose of poetry is for a poet to create his or her works in the sharing of an experience, a feeling, or an emotion.
Occurs when a rhyme is not exact, often the final consonant sounds are the same but the vowels are different. Occurs frequently in Irish, Welsh, and Icelandic verse. Exs. green and gone, that and hit, ill and shell
Occurs when the initial sounds of a word are repeated in a close succession. Ex. people who pen poetry. The function might be to accentuate the beauty of language in a given context or to unite words or concepts through a kind of repetition. The similar sounding sounds are not always the first sounds
Alliteration is the beginning of the word, rhyme the end- assonance is in the middle. Assonance occurs when the vowel sound in a word matches the sound in a nearby word, but the surrounding consonant sounds are different. Tune and June are rhymes, tune and food are assonant.
Words used to evoke meaning by their sounds. Pow, zap, whop, zonk, eek.
Refers to the recurrence of stresses at equal intervals. A
(accent) is a greater amount of force given to one syllable rather than another. The unstressed syllables are often called a
or scanning is indicating where the stress occurs.
Direct comparison using like or as.
Indirect comparison of two things.
Arrangement of ideas into phrases, sentences, and paragraphs that balance the element with another of equal importance and similar wording.
The attribution of human characteristics to an inanimate object, an abstract quality or an animal.
The substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive term for one that might offend or suggest something unpleasant.
A deliberate exaggeration for effect.
A number of phrases or sentences arranged in ascending order of rhetorical forcefulness.
A ludicrous attempt to portray pathos- to evoke pity, sympathy, or sorrow.
A contradiction in terms deliberately employed for effect. Ex. jumbo shrimp or wise folly
Expression of something other than, and particularly the opposite of, the literal meaning such as words of praise when blame is intended.
A verbal blunder in which one word is replaced by another that is similar in sound but different in meaning.
The rules or patterned relationships that correctly create phrases and sentences from words
Made up of two independent clauses that are joined by a conjunction, a correlative conjunction (either or, neither nor), or a semicolon. Both independent clauses are able to stand on their own.
Ex. Samantha ate the cookie and she drank her milk.
Made up of one independent clause and one dependent clause.
Ex. When Jody saw how clean the house was, she was happy.
Contains one independent clause.
Ex. The dancer bowed.
High frequency words
The words most often used in the English language.
Words that the reader learns to read spontaneously
A piece of writing, a poem, a play, or speech whose purpose is to change the minds of the audience members to get them to do something
In contrast to persuasion, the only purpose of exposition is to inform.
Discourse that is arranged chronologically- something happened, and then something else happened.
Has the purpose of making an experience available through one of the five senses.
The artful adaptations of language to meet various purposes.
The attitude an author takes toward his or her subject
Point of view