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Geology 122 Ch. 1 Quiz
Terms in this set (27)
After reclassification in 2005, Pluto is no longer classified as a planet because it:
Pluto's gravity has not cleared its orbit of other matter and therefore it no longer fits the modern definition of a planet.
Earth is round because:
its interior rock is warm enough to flow slowly in response to gravity.
Fusion reactions happen at a slower rate:
in smaller stars than in bigger ones. Large stars, because of their greater mass, become denser and therefore hotter than small stars; fusion reactions are accelerated, and the large stars burn out faster
How far is the Sun away from Earth?
Can there be more than one generation of stars in the universe?
Because stars live for varied periods of time, the Universe always contains many different generations of stars.
What is a stellar wind?
A stellar wind is a stream of atoms emitted from a star during its lifetime.
What planets do asteroids orbit between?
They orbit between Mars and Jupiter.
Does radioactive decay absorb or release energy?
Radioactive decay releases energy, it does not absorb it.
What types of stars can become supernovas?
Only massive stars can become Supernovas
Low-mass stars can produce elements only up to atomic number 6 (carbon). They don't have high enough temperatures to cause larger nuclei to collide and attach.
What is the explanation for how the universe began?
The Big Bang theory is the explanation for how our Universe began.
How did our solar system develop?
it formed solely from atoms generated by the Big Bang. Solar System material also came from atoms produced over billions of years in previously existing stars.
Scientific cosmology provides the foundation for exploring the processes that formed our Universe, Solar System, and planet but it does not prove theories. Scientific cosmology is the guiding principle that allows us to formulate explanations of our observations.
The expanding Universe theory:
Expanding Universe theory is supported by red shift; the fact that all light in the universe is shifted towards red color, signifying longer (dilating) wavelengths.
The Big Bang theory states that:
Only small atoms like helium, lithium, beryllium, and boron were formed. Larger atoms developed in later-generation stars and in supernova explosions.
The composition of the giant (Jovian) planets is mainly:
The composition of the giant (Jovian) planets is mainly gas and "ice." The Jovian (gas/giant) planets consist mainly of ice (frozen volatiles). The terrestrial planets consist mainly of cooled refractory materials (rock or metal). The Sun comprises 99.8% of all mass of the Solar System. Most planets have moons. Scientists have observed dozens of stars with planetary systems.
Imagine that the light you observe from space is exhibiting a blue shift. This would mean that the Universe:
is collapsing. When a light source moves toward you, it becomes blue as it shifts to a higher frequency; receding light shifts to red, a lower frequency.
Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune are what types of planets?
Jovian planets. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are the Jovian planets; Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the terrestrial planets.
How was our moon formed?
was formed by the collision of Earth with a Mars-sized protoplanet. Data support the theory that the Moon formed after a collision between Earth and a Mars-sized planet. The ejected debris coalesced around the Earth to form the Moon.
Our Solar System does what every 250 million years?
completes one rotation around the center of the Milky Way every 250 million years.
Our Solar System lies near the outer edge of the Milky Way, it formed less than 5 billion years ago, and our Sun is a third- or fourth-generation star.
How old is our sun?
is less than 5 billion years old.
Our Sun is less than 5 billion years old and is likely a third- or fourth-generation star.
When does the Doppler effect occur?
occurs when the pitch of a sound will get higher if the source is receding. The Doppler effect states that the pitch will get lower as the source recedes.
The earliest nebulae to form in the Universe were made almost entirely of:
hydrogen and helium. The earliest nebulae consisted entirely of the smallest atoms, mainly hydrogen and helium. Carbon production required the temperatures and subsequent particle velocities of stellar nucleosynthesis of at least first-generation stars.
The heavier elements on Earth (those with atomic numbers greater than 5):
are formed by stellar nucleosynthesis during the life cycles of existing stars. There was no matter during the first instant, only energy. Heavier elements came later, after small atoms were present to be processed into bigger elements.
The heliocentric model was supported by what and who?
was supported by Johannes Kepler's observation that planets follow an elliptical orbit.
The heliocentric model of the Universe states that the Sun is the center of the Solar System and that the Earth, Moon, and planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits. It is the geocentric model that was developed by Ptolemy, was widely accepted during the Middle Ages, and states that the Earth is the center of the Universe.
The solar wind:
blew light, gaseous elements out of the inner Solar System. The solar wind left the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) relatively free of light, gaseous elements such as hydrogen and helium.
Which of the following did not add to the gases that formed Earth's earliest atmosphere?
Solar Wind. Volcanic eruptions, comet collisions, and planetary outgassing all contributed gases that helped form the Earth's earliest atmosphere. Hydrogen and helium in Earth's early atmosphere were heated up and escaped Earth's gravity, only to be blown away by the solar wind.
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