Adolescence Exam 1: Chapter 1 (Growth and Development)
Terms in this set (44)
When does Adolescence begin according to our book?
It begins at 10-13 years of age and goes until late teens.
What is considered Early Adolescence?
11-14 years old.
What is considered Late Adolescence?
15-20 years old.
What is the Interventionist View on Adolescence?
That: "Adolescence is a socio-historical creation"; result of widespread change such as: child labor laws, mandatory schooling through teenage years, & other laws differentiating youth from adults (driving, drinking, and voting).
What does Newt Gingrich believe about Adolescence?
That it is a failed model-that children should finish school earlier and enter the workforce earlier.
What are Stereotypes?
Generalizations that reflect impressions/beliefs about a broad category of people.
What is Confirmation Bias?
The tendency to interpret new info. as confirmation of one's existing beliefs; ignoring evidence that belief is untrue.
Who was G. Stanley Hall and what was his stance on Adolescence?
Hall is considered the "Father of Adolescent Psych" and believed that adolescence is the time of storm and stress-bouncing back and forth between extremes of emotions-the "Sour Patch Theory."
Who pioneered the Sociocultural view of adolescence?
What did Margaret Mead find in her studies in Samoa?
That stress was caused by a gap between adults and adolescents and that there was less stress when adolescents were not restricted, but allowed to fully participate in society.
What do the predictions in changes of size (or amount) of adolescent age groups of 10-19 year olds look like, from 1980-2050?
They will increase dramatically!
What changes in diversity of adolescents will occur from 2000-2100?
There will be more latino children.
What is a Self-fulfilling Prophecy?
The idea that expectations and biases can elicit anticipated outcomes.
What is Social Context?
The setting in which development occurs; these settings are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.
What are the 3 major processes of development, across the lifespan?
Name the three major developmental issues/debates.
1) Nature vs. Nurture
2) Continuity vs. Discontinuity
3) Early vs. Later Experience
What is the Nature vs. Nurture debate?
Biological vs. environmental issues; Ex. growth during childhood vs. influence of nutrition.
What is the Continuity vs. Discontinuity debate?
Development involves gradual, cumulative change vs. development involves distinct changes ; a child's first word vs. abstract thinking.
What is the Early vs. Later Experience debate?
Issue of which ones are the key determinants of development; emphasis has traditionally been on early experience.
Who were the 2 psychoanalytic theorists?
Freud & Erikson.
What was Freud's theory?
Psychoanalysis; Emphasis on "unconscious" and bringing that to awareness; emphasis on early experiences, especially with parents; and how we resolve conflicts at different stages of life; *Adolescents bury conflict deep inside conscious mind.
What are Freud's 3 parts of the mind?
What is the ID?
(Unconscious) aggressive and sexual impulses and instincts.
What is the EGO?
(Mostly conscious) "Executive Branch" of the mind; makes rational decisions; resolves conflicts between the id, superego, and reality.
What is the SUPEREGO?
(Mostly unconscious) The "conscience," moral part of the mind; leads to guilt about id impulses.
What is repression?
Pushing unacceptable ID impulses and painful memories into the unconscious mind.
What are defense mechanisms? What theorist believed in these?
(Used by the ego) in order to resolve/not feel anxiety; Freud.
What does each stage in Freud's psychosexual stages represent?
The shifting of the focus of sexual pleasure and conflict.
What did Freud believe adult personality is determined by?
That it is determined by how we resolve conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage of life and the demands of reality.
What are 3 common critiques of Freud?
1) Overemphasis on sexual instincts
2) Conscious thought also plays a role in development
3) Lack of scientific support
What was BF Skinner's theory?
(Behaviorism) Operant conditioning; The consequences of an action produce changes in the probability of that action occurring again; *Reinforcement & Punishment.
What is Reinforcement?
Something that increases the likelihood
of a behavior.
What is Punishment?
Something that decreases the likelihood of a behavior.
What are the different kinds of Reinforcement?
1) Positive Reinforcement
2) Negative Reinforcement
What is Positive Reinforcement?
Add something to increase behavior.
What is Negative Reinforcement?
Remove something to increase behavior.
What are the different kinds of Punishment?
1) Positive Punishment
2) Negative Punishment
What is Positive Punishment?
Add something to decrease behavior.
What is Negative Punishment?
Remove something to decrease behavior.
What was Albert Bandura's theory?
The Social Cognitive Theory; Behavior is learned through interactions with the social environment; There are reciprocal influences between behavior, environment and cognition.
What type of Learning style did Bandura emphasize?
Observational Learning aka imitation or
modeling; Bobo Doll.
Who was Urie Brofrenbrenner's and what was his theory?
Developmental Psychologist & Co-Founder of Head Start; (Ecological theory) Development reflects the influence of 5 Environmental Systems.
What are Bronfrenbrenner's 5 Systems?
1) The Individual
6) Chronosystem (Timing)
What is the Recent Addition of Biological Influences?