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AP World Chapter 18
Terms in this set (15)
- Mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure to drive a piston, rather than relying on human or animal muscle power
- The introduction of the steam engine allowed a hitherto unimagined increased in productivity and made the Industrial Revolution possible
- It provided an inanimate and almost limitless source of power beyond that of wind, water or muscle and could be used to drive any number of machines as well as locomotives and oceangoing ships
Indian Cotton Textiles
- For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded Western markets
- The competition stimulated the British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and in India. were certainly one factory driving the innovation in the British textile industry.
British Royal Society
- Association of scientists established in England in 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion of "useful knowledge".
- They are an association of natural philosophers (scientists) to this end, it established "Mechanics' libraries" published broadsheets and pamphlets on recent scientific advances and held frequent public lectures and demonstrations.
- The integration of science and technology became widespread and permanent after 1850, but for a century before, it was largely a British phenomenon
- Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century
- It emphasize thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness and "respectability". All of which characterized the middle class-culture. The central value of that culture was the part of "respectability" a term that combined notions of social status and virtuous behavior.
- Nowhere were these values more effectively displayed than in the Scotsman Samuel Smile's famous book Self-Help.
Lower Middle Class
- Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, and the like
- By 1900, this group compromised about 20 percent of Britain's population. As Britain's industrial economy matured it gave rise to this class the people apart of it where the workers like clerks salespeople, hotel staff, secretaries, police officers ect. By the end of the century this class represented 20% of Britain's population, this also brought new employment options for women.
- The most influential proponent of socialism, Marx (1818-1883) was a German expatriate in England who advocated working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future. He was German by birth but spent most of his life in England, where he witnessed the brutal conditions of Britain's Industrial Revolution and wrote voluminously about history and economics.
- His probing analysis led him to the conclusion that industrial capitalism was an inherently unstable system, doomed collapse in a revolutionary upheaval that would give birth to a classless socialist society, thus ending forever the ancient conflict between rich and poor.
- British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism.
- It advocated a reformist program and peaceful democratic transition to socialism, largely rejecting the class struggle and revolutionary emphasis of classical Marxism.
- Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class
- Originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population. Marx has expected industrial capitalist societies to polarize into a small wealthy class and a huge increasingly impoverished...
Socialism in the United States
- Fairly minor political movement in the United States, at its height in 1912 gaining 6 percent of the vote for its presidential candidate
- American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization
Russian Revolution of 1905
- Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country's defeat at the hands of Japan in1905
- The revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms
- A military strongman who seized control of a government in nineteenth-century Latin America
Latin American Export Boom
- Large-scale increase in Latin America exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing countries in the second half of the nineteenth century, made possible by major improvements in shipping; the boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes
- Long and bloody war (1911-1920) in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Diaz and create a new, much more democratic political order
- Term used to describe Latin America's economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was largely financed by foreign capital and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions