39 terms

Ch 2_Cells_Inside the Cell (Cytosol & Organelles)

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Cytoplasm
Cytosol and Organelles (inside the cell)
Cytosol
intracellular fluid, contains ions, proteins, and nutrients
Organelles
Specialized cellular structures that perform a specific function
1. Non-membranous vs. membranous
Nucleus
Control center of the cell, contains genetic material (DNA)
Nuclear Membrane
Double membrane separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Dark stained body, site of ribosome production
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Fluid-filled coiled tubules. Serves as a channel for transporting substances within the cell
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Studded with ribosomes b. Manufactures all secreted proteins
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
Functions in cholesterol synthesis, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling
Golgi Apparatus
Stack of flat membranous sacs and vesicles. Packages proteins for transport depending on their final destination
Three distinct pathways of vesicles
Secretory vesicles - travel to cell surface and release content by exocytosis
Membrane renewal vesicles - fuses with cell membrane...
Become lysosomes and remain in cytoplasm
Lysosomes
membranous sac of digestive enzymes
Lysosomes
Digest non-usable and damaged organelles
Lysosomes
Destroy bacteria and other foreign materials within the cell
Lysosomes
Autolysis - self destruction
Peroxisomes
membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes
Peroxisomes
Detoxify harmful substances like alcohol and formaldehyde
Peroxisomes
Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)
Mitochondria
Double membrane structures
Mitochondria
Infoldings called cristae
Mitochondria
Inner fluid called the matrix
Mitochondria
Provides ATP for cellular energy
Mitochondria
"Powerhouses" of the cell e. Contains it's own circular DNA for reproduction and protein synthesis
Ribosomes
small dark bodies made of protein and RNA
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
Ribosomes
Found free in the cytoplasm and attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
Cytoskeleton
"cell skeleton". Provides the cell with an internal framework, supports organelles, and facilitates intracellular motility
Microtubules
i. Hollow tubes made of protein
ii. Radiate out from a region near the nucleus
iii. Anchor and move organelles
iv. Form mitotic spindles during cell division
(Part of Cytoskeleton)
Microfilament
i. Concentrated under the plasma membrane
ii. Function in cell mobility and shape
iii. Braces plasma membrane and strengthens cell surface
(Part of Cytoskeleton)
Intermediate filaments
i. Composed of proteins with high tensile strength ii. Resist pulling forces on the cell
(Part of Cytoskeleton)
Centrioles
Rod-shaped bodies located near the nucleus
Centrioles
Composed of short microtubules arranged in a cylindrical structure
Centrioles
Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell division
Cellular Extensions
What are Cilia and flagella
Cilia
Whip-like cellular extension that occurs on the free surface of the cell and moves substances along the cell surface.
Flagella
Cellular extension that is similar to cilia in structure but much longer and Propels the cell itself.
Microvilli
Finger-like extensions of the cell membrane that increase surface area of cell.
Nonmembranous Organelles
Commonality of the following?
-Cytoskeleton
-Microvilli
-Centrioles
-Cilia
-Flagella
-Ribosomes
Membranous Organelles
Commonality of the following?
-Mitochondria
-Nucleus
-Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER & SER)
-Golgi Apparatus
-Lysosomes
-Peroxisomes
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