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English Literature - To Kill A Mockingbird

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Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it
SMALL TOWN SOUTHERN LIFE
*'tired' and 'town' alliteration 't'
*clock is ticking slowly - rhythm of the sentence is steady and gentle
*could be a disguise for something that is fast-paced
Maycomb's sickening disease
SMALL TOWN SOUTHERN LIFE
*Racial discrimination is common
nothing to buy and no money to buy it, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County
SMALL TOWN SOUTHERN LIFE
*constrained
*'nothing' is repeated 2x
*emphasises how poor and restricted their mindset is
'Your father does not know how to teach. You can have a seat now.' (Scout's First Grade teacher)

I mumbled that I was sorry and retired meditating upon my crime.
SMALL TOWN SOUTHERN LIFE
*Emphasises how small-minded people are
*Education noted as a 'crime'
He turned out the light and went into Jem's room. He would be there all night, and he would be there when Jem waked up in the morning
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Sense of security + peace from Atticus (contrasts the idea of Maycomb's setting)
*Links in with the book 'The Grey Ghost' as all the problems are resolved (as innocence is revealed)
guests of Maycomb
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Ewell family come from a poor background even though they are white
*Not considered as white
You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view - until you climb into his skin and walk around in it
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*empathy
*vivid image understanding a person's thoughts and feelings
*what they might treasure - from their instincts
without a speck o' trouble outa him
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Description of Tom Robinson from Mr Link Deas whom he worked for 8 years
Tin-foil was sticking out of a knot-hole just above my eye level, winking at me in the afternoon sun. I stood on my tiptoe, hastily looked around once more, reached into the hole, and withdrew two pieces of chewing gum minus their outer wrappers
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Scout views Boo through a different lens
*She understands him more deeply
*He is friendly, thoughtful and kind supported through 'winking at me'
They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for us (Miss Maudie)
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*don't is repeated 3x
*emphasised to treasure the good - speak the truth
Shoot all the bluejays you want if you can hit'em, but remember it's a sin to kill a mockingbird (Atticus)
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Atticus - never mentioned a sin
*comparing Tom Robinson/Boo Radley - innocent + pure hearts
*Blue jays - metaphor for Bob Ewell (crime)
The one thing that doesn't abide by majority rule is a person's conscience
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*blindly following society
Atticus Finch is the same in his house as he is on the public streets (Miss Maudie)
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Good heart + character 'house' and 'public streets'
*Not hypocritical/fake - Maycomb Country folks
So if spitting in my face and threatening me saved Mayella Ewell one extra beating, that's something I'll gladly take. He had to take it out on somebody and I'd rather it be me than that houseful of children out there.
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Atticus shows empathy
*He protects the Ewell family's children
Made me sick, plain sick...The way that man called him 'boy' all the time
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Evil is picked up from Dill who is a child
*Anaphora 'sick'
*Losing childhood innocence as he witnesses the unequal treatment of blacks + whits clearly
*'boy' indicates how Mr Gilmer has no respect
*Ironic as that is how he acts Mr Gilmer (immature)
*'All the time' tone of voice is weak and sympathetic (growing mature as he is now more aware of his surroundings)
a pocket Merlin, whose head teemed with eccentric plans, strange longings, and quaint fancies
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Dill lives in his own world
*Wizard like 'Merlin' who comes up with the idea to let Boo Radley to come out
*'strange longings' - odd personality
*'pocket' - size (older than Scout) metaphorically vibrant
His left arm was fully twelve inches shorter than his right and hug dead at his side
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Tom Robinson is innocent and he could have not raped Mayella Ewell physically
He got it caught in a cotton gin/ like it to bled to death...tore all his muscles from his bones
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Shows clearly that Tom Robinson was not responsible for the crime
*Supported by Dolphus Raymond
Mr Ewell, 'Atticus began, 'folks were doing a lot of running that night. Let's see, you say you ran to Mayella, you ran for Mr Tate. Did you, during all this running, run for a doctor
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Evil - Mr Ewell did not care about Mayella
*Clearly points out that Tom R. could not have done it/Bob Ew. was either the suspect or responsible for the rape
Mr Tate testified that her right was blackened
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Mayella Ewell is lying - Tom Robinson is right handed (yet Mayella stated her 'right was blackened')
Tom was a black-velvet Negro, not shiny but soft black velvet
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*A description from Scout - about Tom Robinson's character 'soft black velvet'
*metaphor - for his honest behaviour
curiosity
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Seen from Scout's perspective
*Quick thinker as Jem's trousers are lost and this is covered up by Dill as he says they were playing 'strip-poker'
*Active imagination
I had felt her tyrannical presence as long as I could remember
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Scout's perspective of Calpurnia
*'tyrannical' addresses she is firm
*she taught Scout how to write
*discipline 'remember' - heavy handed
*beneficial for Scout (all members in the Finch household are unprejudiced)
A negro would not pass the Radley place at night
GOOD, EVIL AND HUMAN DIGNITY
*Evil rumours supported by the inferior beings 'negro' not wanting to walk past
*'Not pass' is hyperbolic - exaggerate how deadly his house is
*Maycomb County - has no conscience
Felt right sorry for her
COURAGE
*Spoken from Tom describing Mayella Ewell
*'right sorry' is pity from Tom
*'her' is ironic as Mayella is white (the tables change)
*This symbol of a mockingbird is clearly displayed as Tom takes the offer in helping Mayella with her house
*He knew the risk as she had full control of him
It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars, was the bravest man who ever lived
COURAGE
*Atticus is compared to a hero - Scout's eyes
*Fighting for Tom's Trial
*Ironic - courageous for standing for the truth
extremely noble
COURAGE
*Scout walks away from a fight
She fights for justice e.g. Tom Robinson's case ***-lover
She sat facing us in the witness chair she became what she was, a thick bodied girl
LONELINESS
*Description of Mayella in the courtroom
*'witness' - limelight/spotlight (white supremacy) contrasts Boo Radley
*she is finally out of the dark (comparison that she was hidden like Boo Radley)
I'm beginning to understand why Boo Radley stays shut up in the house all the time...it's because he wants to stay inside.
LONELINESS
*(sometime's we don't like to hear the truth)
*e.g. Boo Radley (doesn't come out - how sick this world is) --> the world isn't safe (Maycomb/society is prejudiced)
*rumours (lies) made up because of the truth
*Physically hides Boo away from everyone
Fragile-looking
LONELINESS
*'Fragile' weak representation - ironic as the Ewell family who are white should be regarded as a higher class
*Complete opposite - abused by her father
e.g. Bluejay
Any stealthy small crime committed in Maycomb
LONELINESS
*Rumours of Boo Radley
*Stays inside because he is considered dangerous
*Alliteration 's' sounds like a snake
*Mentally buries Boo's mind - which makes him isolated (because of society's corrupt minds)
e.g. Mockingbird
As Atticus once advised me to do, I tried to climb into Jem's skin and walk around in it. If I had gone alone to the Radley Place at two in the morning, my funeral would have been held the next afternoon. So I left Jem alone and tried not to bother him
GROWING UP
*Scout uses her fathers advice
*She shows great respect for her father and brother
*Scout is mature for her age
every lawyer gets at least one case in his lifetime that affects him personally
GROWING UP
*Atticus admits defeat from Tom Robinson's case
*Scout tries to understand this acceptance of failure
his shoulders jerked as if each 'guilty' was a separate stab between them
GROWING UP
*Jem feels sympathy and sadness for Tom Robinson when his case is over
*Scout addresses this directly about Jem in her first person narrative
a naturally tranquil disposition and a slow fuse
GROWING UP
*Jem is mature 'slow fuse'
*He doesn't get terribly upset/excited
*He can control his emotions better than Dill or Scout
She was quite right. Atticus, she told me how I should have treated her-oh dear, I'm so sorry I romped on
GROWING UP
*Scout is wise like her father Atticus
*She has taught Uncle Jack a lesson
*She shares strong moral values
*Scout can explain things to people in a way that allows them to understand her perspective
She had her own views about things, a lot different from mine, maybe...Son, I told you that if you hadn't lost your head I'd have made you go read to her. I wanted you to see something about her. I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. It's when you know you're licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do
GROWING UP
*Jem was helping Mrs Dubose to overcome her morphine addiction
*True courage
*This relates to Tom Robinson's case as Atticus knew he wasn't able to win the case but he tried to bring some justice
It's like bein' a caterpillar in a cocoon...I always thought Maycomb folks were the best folks in the world, least that's what they seemed like
GROWING UP
*Jem was wrapped up 'cocoon'
*Ellipsis '...' contrasts how his character transitions into maturing a little (from before + after)
*Patriotic behaviour 'best folks' inculcated
*Punctuation ',' a moment of realisation
*Loses innocence has he witnesses the reality of Maycomb 'seemed like'
I declare to the Lord you're getting' more like a girl every day!
GROWING UP
*Scout is growing less tom-boy like as Aunt Alexandra tries to lady-like her
*She witnesses more greatly the act/way women should be
*Spoken by Jem
*She tries to resist her Aunt's attempts
Hey Mr Cunningham. How's your entailment gettin' along?...I got to school with Walter...he does right well. He's a good boy.
GROWING UP
*'?' social interaction from Scout to Mr Cunningham (she brings him back out of his mob by individually addressing him how he is)
*'...' ellipsis carries on this conversation as Scout humanises this mob
*'good boy' positive atmosphere places an emphasise from Scout's behaviour into acting decent
One was a figure of a boy, the other wore a crude dress
GROWING UP
*Scout is beginning to understand more deeply that Boo Radley is not a rumour
*Thanks to the help of Dill causing him to come out
So, I tackled his entailments once more in a last-ditch effort to make him feel at home
GROWING UP
*Scout uses her childhood naviety by comforting Mr Cunningham so this mob that was encircled around Atticus/Jem/Tom Robinson would go away
you simply not being a Christian today. Jesus Christ never went around grumbling and complaining
(Ms. Grace Merriweather talking to Gertrude)
PREJUDICE
*Hypocritical - Ms. Grace's character - slanders
*States - religious (ironic 'grumbling + 'complaining' reflect her character)
They've done it before and they did it tonight and they'll do it again and when they do it—seems that only children weep
PREJUDICE + GROWING UP
*shows how fixed these adults minds are as only children can recognise this irrespectable behaviour
*'they' is repeated twice - emphasises how rigid mask that adults wear
*Time: 'before', 'tonight', 'again' contrast
*Children highlight this as they are not indoctrinated - yet are full of curiosity/innocent e.g. Jem/Scout
Tom was a dead man the minute Mayella Ewell opened her mouth and screamed
PREJUDICE
*Atticus had no chance
*foreshadowing 'dead man'
Eat people's gardens
PREJUDICE
*Behaviour of the racist people in Maycomb County
*Metaphor - of bluejays from Atticus's point of view
Kiss me back n****
PREJUDICE
*Tom Robinson is easily manipulated by Mayella's power of her 'white' supremacy which forces respect on Mayella
*The respect that she had never had
As you grow older, you'll see white men cheat black men every day of your life, but let me tell you something and don't you forget it-whenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is, how rich he is, or how fine a family he comes from, that white man is trash
PREJUDICE
*Expresses how white supremacy is an uneducated idea of thinking 'white trash'
'Don't be silly, Jean Louise,' said Aunt Alexandra. 'The thing is, you can scrub Walter Cunningham till he shines, you can put him in shoes and a new suit, but he'll never be like Jem
PREJUDICE
*Indicates how fixated class systems are in society
*People cannot change
It's not necessary to tell all you know. It's not ladylike -in the second place, folks don't like to have someone around knowin' more than they do. It aggravates 'em. You're not gonna change any of them by talkin' right, they've got to want to learn themselves, and when they don't want to learn there's nothing you can do but keep your mouth shut or talk their language.
PREJUDICE
*We can't change people - as they need to learn and figure out their decisions/actions by themselves
*'talk their language' - Cal is educated and talks the Finch language with them + Church/Community - she speaks as they do (fits in)
I guess Tom was tired of taking white men's chances and preferred to take his own
PREJUDICE
*Pressure from everyone - society forces Tom to do this
*Spoken from Atticus
It began the summer when Dill came to us, when Dill first gave us the idea of making Boo Radley come out
PREJUDICE
*Described as negatively at the start
*Cyclic structure of the book ends with Scout understanding that Boo Radley had cared for her/children
Malevolent phantom
PREJUDICE
*Scout's point of view at first - which is picked from the rumours of Maycomb county