24 terms

UNIT 3: CELL DIVISION

STUDY
PLAY
histones
proteins supercoiled by DNA
chromatin
DNA associated w/ proteins
chromosomes
in eukaryotes - further coiled and folded DNA
human chromosome no. in somatic cells
46
human chromosome no. in gamete cells
23
homologous pairs definition
chromosome (1 mum 1 dad)
homologous pairs function
carries info for same characteristic but in diff. forms
gene
unit of info
difference between DNA structure of pro/euk
pro: not associated w/ proteins, circular DNA
euk: associated w/ histone proteins, linear DNA
difference between chromatid + chromosome
chromatid: DNA wrapped around histones
chromosomes: supercoiled + folded DNA around histones, more condensed
M phase
mitosis + cytokinesis
G1 phase
chromosomes are occupied in protein synthesis
cell starts growing
S phase
chromosomes replicate, results in two identical chromatids per chromosome
mitosis
eukaryotic nucleus division into two genetically identical nuclei - four phases
mitosis stages
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
interphase
two copies of each chromosome replicated into sister chromatids
prophase
chromosomes shorten and fatten from supercoiling
nuclear membrane breaks down
microtubules grow from cell poles, attach to centromeres and form a spindle
metaphase
chromosomes move towards cell equator via mitotic spindle
opposite spindle fibres attached to each sister chromatid's centromeres
anaphase
fibres contract
sis chromatids separate, pulled towards opp. poles of cell
mitosis produces 2 genetically identical nuclei
telophase
nuclear membranes reform around chromatids, now chromosomes
chromosomes uncoil and cell undergoes division/cytokinesis
daughter cells enter interphase again
mitotic index
no. cells in mitosis/total no. of cells
nucleolus function
store chromosomes
cyclin function
proteins which control cell progression in cell cycle
cyclin-dependent kinases/cdk
enzyme group
phosphorylates other proteins responsible for cell cycle regulation
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