Biology(Mrs.D) DNA, RNA, & Protein Synthesis
Terms in this set (32)
Who built models that demonstrated that DNA is made of two strands that twist into a double helix? (double helix is the structure of DNA)
Watson & Crick
What are DNA helicases?
The enzymes that unwind DNA during replication.
Of the four nitrogen bases (Adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine) which two are purines?
Adenine and Guanine
Of the four nitrogen bases (Adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine) which two are pyrimidines?
Thymine & Cytosine
In RNA molecules, what is adenine complementary to?
What makes up a nucleotide?
A sugar, a Nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.
What are composed of long chains of nucleotides?
Molecules of DNA.
What is the function of rRNA?
To form ribosomes
What is the difference in DNA and RNA?
How does RNA differ from DNA?
RNA contains uracil.
DNA contains thymine.
What are the three types of RNA?
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA
What part of the molecule is DNA named?
During transcription, the genetic information for making a protein is rewritten as what molecule?
What is the term that identifies each nucleotide triplet in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid?
At the very beginning of translation, what does the first tRNA molecule do?
binds to the mRNA's start codon
DNA polymerases are enzymes. What are they responsible for?
Adding nucleotides to the exposed DNA bases during replication.
What does transfer RNA do?
Carries an amino acid it its correct codon.
What are purines and pyrimidines?
Classification groups of nitrogen bases.
When does transcription begin?
When RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter sequence of a gene.
What does a nucleotide consist of?
a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
The amount of Cytosine in an organism equals the amount of what?
What happens during transcription?
RNA is produced.
The information contained in a molecule of messenger TNA is used to make what?
protein during the process of translation.
What is the name of the five-carbon sugar that makes up a part of the backbone of molecules of DNA?
What is the process by which DNA copies itself?
Nucleotide sequences of tRNA that are complementary to codons on mRNA are called what?
During translation, how are amino acids brought to the ribosomes?
by molecules of transfer RNA.
What is the form of ribonucleic acid that carries genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes?
The nitrogen-containing base that is found only in RNA is what?
Messenger RNA is produced during what process?
What is the function of a codon?
To either specify an amino acid or signal a stop or start.
Which types of RNA play a role in translation?
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA