History of ID quiz 1
Terms in this set (51)
Emotional realism and drama. Grotesques and classicizing motifs; Putti, acanthus scrolls, abundant natural
motifs. Asymmetry. Dark, heavy colors and materials
Baroque inlay technique of using cut and fitted, highly polished colored stones to create images.
a thin decorative covering of fine wood applied to a coarser wood or other material. Baroque and rococo
inlaid work made from small pieces of variously colored wood or other materials, used chiefly for the decoration of furniture. baroque and rococo
veneering furniture with a marquetry of tortoiseshell, pewter which is and inlaid with arabesques of gilded brass.
Playful spirit; humor and witty visual devices. Lighter appearance; Designs feel more open and loose, less tight and intense. Natural forms, particularly shell, rock (rocaille), and plant life. Embrace non-western design traditions. Softer S- and C- curves. Asymmetry. Light, pastel colors and materials
a style of art depicting Asian/ Chinese motifs popular in France and England
Inspired by a foreign country. The arts of the East were also considered quaint and uncorrupted by industrial capitalism in the English utilitarian society
the revival of a classical style or treatment in art, literature, architecture, or music. its popularity spread all over Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals. Coincided with the age of enlightenment. born in the mid 18th century
Christian sect founded in the 18th century in England. they lived simple lives and were very interested in "eternal space" created through practical/intentional design. A very simple style of furniture that is free from excessive decoration.
Gothic Revival (18th and 19th century)
Arches permitted the use of stained glass
The gothic never really goes out of style in england, it depreciates in interest in the 18th century due to its association with the catholicism during the protestant reformation
. an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. ___________________ draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, finials, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, and label stops.
Decoration is second to form. Health and hygiene revelations fueled this reform because people were concerned with cleanliness. for example, deep wood carvings were rejected because of their tendency to trap dust.
Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power.
A period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s.
an electrolytic process in which a metal ion is reduced and a solid metal is deposited on a surface.
use of electricity to coat a thin layer of metal onto an object. 1805
a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature.
a rigid, strong construction material made by adding carbon to iron
began to appear as a low-cost alternative to similarly treated plaster or carved wood in architecture. Henry Clay of Birmingham, England, patented a process for treating laminated sheets of paper with linseed oil to produce waterproof panels in 1772. These sheets were used for building coach door panels as well as other structural uses. Theodore Jennens patented a process in 1847 for steaming and pressing these laminated sheets into various shapes, which were then used to manufacture trays, chair backs, and structural panels, usually laid over a wood or metal armature for strength.
State owned Silk weaving manufactory
state owned Porcelain manufactory
Gobelins and Beauvais, france
State owned Tapestry manufactory
Only men could be part of _____ until the late 19th century. The _____ were usually centered around the making of a specific good. In order to join a __________ you would go to school, study a specific trade, and go to work. Usually __________ were associated with cities. They were very good for the economy. The ______ had the power to create a monopoly and price items however they please because they were the primary makers.
a huge economic engine because it involves so many people and it encourages international trade. The King would commission these _________ because it speaks to the prestige of the monarch and the country or city.
the presidency of the workshop, they are economically responsible for everyone who works under them and responsible for paying taxes and regulating quality. To become a master you have to prove economic stability and skill. You can only become a master after being a journeyman for an extended period of time.
they are learning how to apply their knowledge to their trade. They would often times travel to other towns and stay to study, this resembles an internship.
would work for free. These were usually young boys who worked for free in order to learn a trade at a very basic level.
division of labor and specialization
This was controversial because it made production more efficient and jobs available to unskilled workers, but it also depreciated the value of labor
A person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business
enabled mass production that was still individual. books that had a variety of options for each element of a product. infinite combinations were possible but manufacturers could still prpduce at an efficient rate.
enabled people to pick out what they wanted to purchase before it was actually made
the grand tour
a cultural tour of Europe formerly undertaken, especially in the 18th century, by a young man of the upper classes as a part of his education. permitted the exchange of ideas and styles
eclecticism or historicism (19th century design)
a nineteenth and twentieth-century architectural style in which a single piece of work incorporates a mixture of elements from previous historical styles to create something that is new and original.
The American System (early mass production in america)
a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century. The two notable features were the extensive use of interchangeable parts and mechanization for production, which resulted in more efficient use of labor compared to hand methods. The system was also known as armory practice because it was first fully developed in armories, namely, the United States Armories at Springfield in Massachusetts and Harpers Ferry in Virginia. eventually became in use worldwide
Great exhibition of 1851
An opportunity to stimulate the economy and international trade. This large building built in London would be mostly devoted to british goods and partially devoted to other countries. sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, and it was a much anticipated event. The Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria.
The Crystal Palace
was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. More than 14,000 exhibitors from around the world gathered in its 990,000-square-foot (92,000 m2) exhibition space to display examples of technology developed in the Industrial Revolution. Designed by Joseph Paxton
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.
Seen as the Father of Capitalism. Published The Wealth of Nations in 1776. agreed with the division of labor
Father of Communism
introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called marxism. Marx characterizes the use of machines as a negative invention because he believes machines diminish workers motivation and purpose to work. Marx explains that capitalist invent machines to cheapen labor and production opposed to making machines to make labor easier, like the Shakers. Machines permit unskilled, weaker people to work. Machines permit entire families to work, but a family does not benefit economically or socially from this change.
(1759) opened pottery business that mass-produced high quality porcelain at a low cost.Every new invention that Wedgwood produced - green glaze, creamware, black basalt and jasper - was quickly copied. Having once achieved perfection in production, he achieved perfection in sales and distribution.
Wedgwood and Sons Manufactory
a fine china, porcelain, and luxury accessories company founded on 1 May 1759 by English potter and entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood.
In 1987, Wedgwood merged with Waterford Crystal to create Waterford Wedgwood, an Ireland-based luxury brands group.
(construction begun in 1765, opened in
1770s) a ceramics factory opened by Josiah Wedgwood in 1769 in a district of Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England, which he named Etruria. The factory ran for 180 years.
1728-1809. was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt. In the final quarter of the 18th century, the partnership installed hundreds of Boulton & Watt steam engines, which were a great advance on the state of the art, making possible the mechanisation of factories and mills
the soho factory
a factory created in 1795 by Matthew Boulton and James Watt and their sons Matthew Robinson Boulton and James Watt Jr. for the manufacture of steam engines.
1795-1852. an American furniture manufacturer, famous for designing and mass-producing the Hitchcock chair.By the late 1820s, the Hitchcock Chair Company was producing over 15,000 chairs a year. mass-producing simple, affordable chairs. Instead of painting designs on the backs, he used the relatively new and easier technique of stenciling.
He made important improvements in the design of the sewing machine and was the founder of the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Many had patented sewing machines before Singer, but his success was based on the practicality of his machine, the ease with which it could be adapted to home use, and its availability on an installment payment basis
an American manufacturer of sewing machines
1808-1882. a British civil servant and inventor who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Cole is credited with devising the concept of sending greetings cards at Christmas time, introducing the world's first commercial Christmas card in 1843.
1803-1879. a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture. Goods are no longer used for crucial needs. Instead, products are often times used for enjoyment.
The present changes so fast that we do not become familiar with any product or the advantages of that product before making something else
Machines have replaced a lot of human skills
We are behind our ancestors in terms of formal beauty. Often times our best work is reminiscent of previous designer and artist.
1801-1865. was an English gardener, architect and Member of Parliament, best known for designing the Crystal Palace,
Samuel Colt and The Patent Arms Manufacturing Company
Weapons manufacturer whose popular revolver used Whitney's system of interchangeable parts
Gebruder Thonet and Michael Thonet
1796-1871. michael was a German-Austrian cabinet maker, known for the invention of bentwood furniture. he passed down his business to his son gebruder
Augustus Welby Northmore (A.W.N) Pugin
introduces a theory of design- truth of material. Advocates form follows functions. key figure in the gothic revival.
Owen Jones and the grammar of ornament
1809-1874. was an English-born Welsh architect. A versatile architect and designer, he was also one of the most influential design theorists of the nineteenth century. He helped pioneer modern colour theory, and his theories on flat patterning and ornament still resonate with contemporary designers today.The Grammar of Ornament, the global and historical design sourcebook for which Jones is perhaps best known today.
1834-1904. is considered the first industrial designer. Dresser addressed the constraints as well as the strengths of the machine in the manufacture of domestic utilitarian objects. A prolific designer, he created forms and ornament for a wide range of manufacturers in Great Britain, France, and the United States. Profoundly influenced by the architect-designer Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-1852) as well as the ornamentalist Owen Jones (1809-1874), Dresser was also inspired by botanical forms and the arts of Japan.
a white vitrified translucent ceramic