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Terms in this set (64)
Concrete is made from what materials?
portland cement, water, and aggregate
Portland cement is what to concrete?
How much does aggregate make up of in concrete?
Top is Continuous Beam
Bottom is Reinforcement
What is the difference?
What happens to concrete when you add less water?
What type of force is concrete? What helps it balance it out?
It is strong in compression meaning it needs reinforcement to make it strong in tension
What are admixtures? How does it affect it?
an adhesive that is added to concrete, it can help it by during or before the curing process can change strength, workability, durability, curing speed, color, and appearance.
Name 3 types of admixtures
Air entertaining, accelerating, retarder, super plasticizer, water reducing, fly-ash, color (pigmenting)
Difference between SILL plate and SOLE plate?
The sill plate is on the bottom and the sole plate is located on the top.
Steel is strong in what force?
It is strong in tension
Name the types of concrete used in construction?
Reinforced concrete, Stressed, Cast in place, Precast, Rammed earth
How many days does it take for concrete to fully cure?
How does concrete protect steel?
Prevents from corrosion
Where should you use reinforcement?
Only placed when there are tensile forces
Types of reinforcement?
rebar, wire mesh, wire fabric
What are bond forces?
adhesive forces between concrete and steel aided by ribs along the surface of the rebar
Where should you place the bars?
bottom of the beam, where there is more tension
What is a rebar cage?
cage of reinforcement that is embedded in concrete, vertical bars, and lateral reinforcement
What supports rebar?
cages, chairs, bolsters suspended rebar
What is pre-stressed concrete?
A stress applied to concrete before it is set. Steel bars and cables are embed in concrete and stretched and released placing the concrete in compression. Gives concrete the ability to be thinner.
What is post-tensioned concrete?
Process that is tensioned after it has cured. Tensioning occurs on site.
What is cast in place concrete?
Cite cast or poured in place. Poured directly on site, unlimited sculptural quality. No restrictions on size or shape. Poured between formwork... this requires form ties form ties prevent formwork from seriating from the concrete. cast in place in large or smaller assembled components.
What is pre cast concrete?
Automated system, much more consistent and quality. Panels, slabs, beams, complex shapes. Cured in steam, helps with strength and consistency. Transportation limits size and weight of components. Limits the types of components that can be made.
What is rammed earth?
Compacted mix of earth, cement, water. Cannot contain any organic matter, typically 12" min thickness, and must be compacted.
Difference between pretension and post tension?
pre: stress added before concrete
post: stress added after concrete
What effects foundation?
soil and groundwater, structural requirements, loads, footprint and depth. Construction Methods, codes, and times.
What is excavation and preparation?
this is always required in site work in construction, and it's support provides work area to the most common is shoring.
Name some of the types of excavation?
Slurry wall, shoring, shallow foundation
Name the different types of footings?
Column, wall, combined, and cantilever
What is Slab-on-grade?
used in climates with little or no ground frost with thickened edges, least expensive foundation + floor system. Applied to one-two story buildings, colder regions bear deeper footings which dig past the frost line.
What is Deep foundations?
bigger structures, allows way more surface area, may be mechanically drilled or hand drilled.
Types of Deep foundations?
Cassion, piles, poles
Types of Movement joints?
control joints, construction joints, expansion joints, and isolation joints
What is a One way framing?
integrally cast and uses parallel support
What is a Two way framing?
support beams and columns on all four sides
What is a Pre-cast framing?
utilizes linear members, utilizes multiple steel connections to assist in assembly
it is just a slab that goes across to its beams, no support in the center
joist system (ribbed slab)?
added support beams and reinforces the one way
Name the different Two way slabs?
flat plate, flat slab, and waffle slab
Name the different types of pre-cast framing?
solid slab, hollow-core, double t, single t, beams, and girders
Different ways of Joining pre-cast assemblies?
Bolting, welding, grouting, and bearing pads
Can you combine welding and bolting?
yes, but it depends on the areas and connection materials as well as the desired level of rigidity
How is the process making for steel?
Casting, forging, rolling, extruding
How is steel made?
ore + oxygen + coke
Different types of steel alloys?
stainless steel, galvanized steel, and cor-ten steel (weathered steel)
What is steels weakness?
what is OWSJ?
open web steel joist
What is IBC & NFPA?
Life, safety, wellness. Building code, fire safety, and state
What types of fire proofing are there?
easement, lath and plaster, enclosures, and spray-applied
Three types of common connections?
bolts, rivets, and welding
What is a shear connection?
vertical forces within the beam to column connection
What is a moment connection?
rotational forces seen at the beam and column connection stabilizing
Rolling of steel vs heating of steel
Different processes gives steel different properties
What is a primary structure?
Major framework of structure , bears majority of load, and primary members of structural systems
What is a secondary structure?
Smaller members that transfer to a primary structural member and joist
What is a One-way beam system?
each pair of external columns supports a long span free of intermediate columns and flanges are oriented parallel to lateral forces.
What is a non-bearing wall?
walls that are not structural, not based on the structural system
What is a subtractions?
Areas where you do no need a regular column grid. Decide where to thicken up members to span a subtraction.
What are the different types of decking?
form, composite, and roof
What is form deck?
permanent formwork for reinforcement slab until slab can support itself+ live load
what is a composite deck?
tensile reinforcement for slab, composite action achieved concrete slab and floor beams joist by welding shear stud
What is a rood deck?
can be finished without concrete
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