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Trimester 2 exam vocab (biology I)
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Terms in this set (99)
Basic unit of all forms of life
Fundamental concept of biology that states that states all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells
Cell/plasma membrane (aka phospholipid bilayer)
Thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
The center of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
Organism whose cells contain a nucleus
Unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
The passive movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration
Cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell; the lysosome also contains enzymes to speed up this process
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a cell
Network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and its involved in movement
Structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
Cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis
Internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
Strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
Flexible double layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
When the concentration of two solutions is the same
Process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels. They just need a protein to help them along, but not energy
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
Water channel protein in a cell. It's a protein that lets water go in and out of the cytoplasm
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. The movement of water from a high concentration to a low concentration. This does not need energy to occur
Pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
Active Transport (bulk transport)
The movement of materials using energy from low to high and/or high to low;(bulk transport is the same thing, just with bigger molecules and particles); think of the a as ATP since active transport needs energy to happen
Relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
Group of similar cells that perform a particular function
Group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
Groups of organs that work together to perform a specific function
On or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone
Process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
The form of light energy from the sun that is an input for photosynthesis
Light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
Saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
Carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules(aka nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
Light dependent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Light independent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called Calvin cycle
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
Cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
Greenhouse Effect (aka global warming)
A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and other pollutants
The amount of carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds emitted due to the consumption of fossil fuels by a particular person, group, etc
A forest, ocean, or other natural environment viewed in terms of its ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Autotroph (aka producer)
Organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; these include plants
Heterotroph (aka consumer)
Organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; these include animal and fungi
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecule in the presence of oxygen
The measure of heat energy in food; equals 1000 calories
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
Compound used by cells to store and release energy (aka adenosine triphosphate)
The powerhouse of the cell; a cell organelle that converts chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
In eukaryotic cells, all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokaryotic cells, all of the cell's contents
A simple singer that organisms use as energy; C6H12O6
Process that requires oxygen; the Krebs cycle and ETC are aerobic processes
Process that does not require oxygen; glycolysis is an anaerobic process
Electron Transport Chain (aka ETC or electron transport system)
Series of electron carrier proteins that shuffle high-energy electrons and hydrogen ions during ATP-generating reactions; other definition is the last step of cellular respiration where it uses the high-energy electrons from the previous two steps to convert ADP to ATP
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
First set of reactions in cellular respiration in which a molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions; (aka the citric acid cycle)
Innermost compartment of the mitochondrion where the Krebs cycle takes place
electron carrier involved in glycolysis; this is different from NADP+ because NADP+ is only found in photosynthesis and plants; (aka nicotinamide adenine dinuleotide)
Pyruvic Acid/ Pyruvate
The product of glycolysis; it is one 3 carbon group that came from glucose
Cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions (H+) to pass through it
How do microscopes work?
Most microscopes use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons
How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells different?
Prokaryotic cells do not separate their genetic material within a nucleus. In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus separates the genetic material from the rest of the cell
What is the role of the cell nucleus?
The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and, with it, the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules
What are the functions of vacuoles, lysosomes, and the cytoskeleton?
Vacuoles store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. Lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. They are also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness. The cytoskeleton helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement
What organelles help make and transport proteins?
Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Proteins made on the rough ER include those that will be released, or secreted, from the cell as well as many membrane proteins and proteins destined for lysosomes and other specialized locations within the cell. The Golgi apparatus modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell.
What are the functions of chloroplasts and mitochondria?
Chloroplasts capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. Mitochondria convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
What is the function of the cell membrane?
The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also protects and supports the cell
What is passive transport?
The movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy is called passive transport; some examples of passive transport include osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion
Channels that run through the cell membrane and allow certain particles in and out of the cytoplasm. An aquaporin is an example of a protein channel
What is active transport?
The movement of materials against a concentration difference is known as active transport. Active transport requires energy
How do individual cells maintain homeostasis?
To maintain homeostasis, unicellular organisms grow, respond to the environment, transform energy, and reproduce
How do the cells of multicellular organisms work together to maintain homeostasis?
The cells of multicellular organisms become specialized for particular tasks and communicate with one another to maintain homeostasis
Why is ATP useful to cells?
ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells.Using"
Kenneth R. Miller, Ph.D. & Joseph S. Levine, Ph.D.
This material may be protected by copyright.
What happens during the process of photosynthesis?
In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
What role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments
What are electron carrier molecules?
An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule
What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide (reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products)
The movement of particles from low to high
What happens during the light-dependent reactions?
The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH
What happens during the light-independent reactions?
During the light-independent reactions, ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars
What factors affect photosynthesis?
Among the most important factors that affect photosynthesis are temperature, light intensity, and the availability of water
Where do organisms get energy?
Organisms get the energy they need from food
What is cellular respiration?
Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food
What happens during the process of glycolysis?
During this process, 1 molecule of glucose, a 6-carbon compound, is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
What happens during the Krebs cycle?
During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
How does the electron transport chain use high-energy electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP
How much ATP does cellular respiration generate?
Together, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain release about 36 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose
True or false, the release of energy by cellular respiration takes place in plants, animals, fungi, and most bacteria
Is NADPH formed in the Krebs Cycle?
No, citric acid is formed in the Krebs Cycle
Is NADPH present in cellular respiration
No because p stands for plants or photosynthesis
True or false, do oxygen and H+ ions combined to form water in the electron transport chain
The energy from glucose is released as...
ATP and heat
True or false, in the electron transport of respiration, H+ ions pass through the thylakoid membrane through ATP synthase, causing it to spin and create ATP from ADP
False, H+ ions don't travel through the thylakoid membrane, they travel through the mitochondria to get to the ATP synthase to convert ADP to ATP
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