2018 Global Regents Exam Review
These are the terms that come up most often on the New York State Global Regents Exam.
Terms in this set (64)
is from the time period or event it is about
diaries; journals; letters; photos & videos of events
was created after the event or time period it is about
textbooks; encyclopedias; books, articles, movies made later
an object made by humans (like buildings, coins, artwork)
studies how people use goods and resources
studies how landforms, water, location, and climate (weather) affect people
shows landforms like mountains and deserts
shows borders and cities
-Conquered Christian Constantinople in 1453
-Muslim Empire and the reason why Europeans like Columbus began to try and find a route by sea to Asia
-Ends after WWI
economic system of Middle Ages Europe that was based on agriculture (farming). The manor was self-sufficient, and led to feudal political order.
belief that God endowed (gave) monarchs to right to rule over others.
absolutism (absolute rule, absolute monarchy)
• centralized power
• divine right
• Louis XIV, Suleiman the Magnificent, the Greats
voyage from Africa to Americas carrying enslaved people
Spanish colonial classes
• peninsulares (white Spaniards)
• creoles (born in colony, Spanish ancestors)
• mestizos & mulattoes
• Native Americans & Africans
• Supported by John Locke
-Monarch had to share power with some type of elected legislature like British Parliament
• based on Scientific Revolution
• used reason
• focused on natural rights (like life & liberty)
• John Locke called for consent of the governed (democracy)
French Revolution 1789-1815
1. People of France overthrew their king (Louis XVI) and fought for more rights.
Causes: Dissatisfaction of Third Estate; Failed harvests (bread prices).
Events: Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen gave equal rights to the men of France and created a fair system of taxation.
Reign of Terror: leaders of the French Revolution executed thousands of people that they believed were loyal to the king. Napoleon will rise to power in the military and become Emperor of France to reestablish "order."
Effects: The Middle Class gained political power. Napoleonic Code promoted meritocracy.
Haitian Revolution 1791-1804
Slave revolt began in 1791
a. slaves burned down the sugar cane plantations
a.Haiti becomes an independent black republic and abolishes slavery.
b. Inspires further slave revolts.
c. Haiti is forced to pay reparations for the plantations and slaves to France. Debt totals 20 billion US dollars
Latin American independence leaders
• Toussaint L'Ouverture (The Regents sometimes includes Haiti in Latin America), Simón Bolívar, and José de San Martín
• unified Germany (Otto Von Bismarck) & Italy (Giuseppe Garibaldi) - in late 1800s (After era of Napoleon in France)
•Force for evil (Nazi Germany, Italian Fascists)
•Force for justice (India, Ghana, Vietnam)
why the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain
• natural resources: iron & coal
-Increasing resources to invest in businesses from colonial profits
• government should stay out of economics
• supply and demand should determine prices in free market
Karl Marx and Communist Manifesto
• called for proletariat (workers) revolution to overthrow capitalism.
-Marx argued that the history of human existence could be explained through class struggle
-Ending private property
Irish Potato Famine
• starvation in Ireland that led to migration to the U.S.
Suez Canal & Panama Canal
• ocean shortcuts • a form of economic imperialism
Sepoy Mutiny (India) and Boxer Rebellion (China)
• attempts to remove foreign influence
• when Japan westernized, industrialized, and modernized. This occurred after Matthew Perry of the U.S. arrived on a steam ship.
Why did Japan pursue imperialism?
• Lack of natural resources needed for modernization/industrial revolution (particularly coal, oil, and iron)
causes of World War I
• assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Treaty of Versailles
• Effect of WWI
• blamed Germany for WWI
• forced Germany to pay reparations
• took land away from Germany
-Major cause of WWII
• Lenin promised "Peace, Land, and Bread."
-The Russian Revolution resulted in the first communist government in the world (1917).
-Happened during WWI
Kemal Atatürk (Turkey)
• nationalist leader who westernized, modernized, democratized, and secularized Turkey after World War 1
• nationalist who led Indian independence movement
• used nonviolent civil disobedience and boycotts(leading up to WWII)
• Salt March was an example in 1930
• Aspired to create unity between Hindus and Muslims
five year plans
• Stalin's attempts to increase Soviet industrial and agricultural output
3 million starved in the Ukraine
• government conrol
-Leader with total power
Why did fascists come to power in Europe between World War I & World War II?
economic hardship (Great Depression)
League of Nations
• lack of military allowed aggression of Italy, Germany, and Japan that led to World War II
Napoleon and Hitler
• both were defeated in Russia partly by winter climate
Marshall Plan & Truman Doctrine
• US aid to other countries to contain communism
• alliance against Soviet Union
supported by peasants (low income farmers)
Similarities between communists in China and Cuba
• Mao Zedong's Communist Revolution in China
• Fidel Castro's Communist Revolution in Cuba
Cold War events
Cold War 1946-1991
• Berlin Wall
•Cuban Missile Crisis
• Korean War
• Vienam War
• Gorbachev's reforms (perestroika and glasnost)
Great Leap Forward
• Mao Zedong's attempt to build Chinese industry and agriculture; 20 million people starve to death
• Deng Xiaoping's attempt to build Chinese industry and agriculture
• more economic freedom (capitalism)
• Middle East has it
• OPEC controls it
India and Pakistan
• split because of religious differences between Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi advocated for a peaceful and unified India.
Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana), Patrice Lumumba (Congo)
• African nationalists who led independence movements after World War II.
• policy of racial segregation (separation) in South Africa
• Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, and Desmond Tutu were anti-apartheid leaders
• F.W. de Klerk ended apartheid in 1994
• led to Islamist theocracy (government by religious leaders) led by Ayatollah Khomeini. SPICE precedents: Islamism, political Islam, rejection of western influences and colonization
is where a central government makes all economic decisions. The government or a collective owns the land and the means of production. The Soviet Union had this after Stalin's Five Year Plans
perestroika and glasnost
• Gorbachev's economic & political reforms of the Soviet Union
• led to the breakup of the Soviet Union
human rights violations
• massacres & genocides
• examples include the Armenian massacre in the Ottoman Empire, Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, and the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda
• 21st century problem - deserts expanding due to overuse (over farming & overgrazing)
• increased agricultural production thanks to 20th century technology
• more countries getting nuclear weapons (like Iran, India, Pakistan & North Korea)
the world community has attempted to address this problem by carefully tracking what nations gain access to nuclear material like plutonium or uranium
Challenged the authority of the Catholic Church to explain the universe.
Advocated that knowledge should be proven through the scientific method.
Famous figures include Copernicus and Newton
Countries become more authoritarian or have radical change when...
There is a political, economic, or social crisis
Causes of WWII
Rise of Fascist leaders seeking to expand their territory
Great Depression that began in the U.S. and spread to Europe
Difficult economic situation after WWI
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese nationalist AND communist who wanted an independent Vietnam and fought against both the French and the U.S. after WWII
After WWII, the territory of Palestine was partitioned by the United Nations. While the Jewish nationalists (Zionists) accepted the plan, the largely Arab Muslims did not, leading to a non-stop cycle of war and tension in the Middle East
Balfour Declaration (1917)
After WWII the British promised Jewish Zionists that they would be given rights to their ancestral homeland in what is called "Palestine"
An international problem resulting from the greenhouse effect. The world is struggling to solve the problem because reducing fossil fuels will affect economies around the world and world leaders disagree on how the problem should be solved.
when a country takes control of other regions for political or economic reasons
When a government prevents its people from accessing information through the news media, in public meetings, or with technology like the internet and social media
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